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Tag: "switched" at biology news

Honey bee genome holds clues to social behavior

... genes turn on, while others turn off. Genes are switched on and off by short strings of DNA that lie close ...tor latches into the binding site, the gene may be switched on. If the transcription factor breaks away from the binding site, the gene is switched off. To se...

Tastes great! Study shows brain's response to pleasing -- and changing -- tastes

... and when we did that the neurons we were studying switched their response," says senior author J. Wayne Aldridge, Ph.D., a research associate professor in the Department of Neurology at the U-M Medical School. "Pleasure has traditionally been one of the hardest problems for neuroscience to measure, but these...

Mobile DNA part of evolution's toolbox

...yos to see whether and where the reporter gene was switched on. Sure enough, the gene was active in the embryos' developing nervous systems, as would be expected if the LF-SINE copy were regulating the activity of ISL1. The discoverer of mobile DNA elements, Barbara McClintock, suggested in 1950 that they ...

Diabetes research takes wing thanks to long-lived fruit fly

...mann initially studied cancer in human cells, then switched to studying fruit flies because he felt that making findings important to human health would happen more rapidly using flies, then transferring the findings to people. He notes that the same molecular signals that control how cells divide in fruit fl...

Scientists reverse evolution

...gulatory sequences have changed. So the scientists switched the two genes' coding regions. Each gene then produced the other gene's protein. Mice born with the switched genes were essentially normal. That means the coding regions were interchangeable, and that evolu...

Computational analysis shows that plant hormones often go it alone

...analysis revealed that surprisingly few genes were switched on by multiple hormones. And when more than one hormone did initiate a similar program, such as activating genes encoding proteins called "expansins" that loosen plant cell walls to allow for growth, the investigators found that they mobilized differ...

Study links high levels of nitric oxide to infertility and sperm DNA damage

...nable to find the cut-off point at which NO levels switched from having a positive effect to having a negative effect. "This study indicates that infertile men have higher levels of sperm DNA damage and NO concentration in their seminal plasma compared to fertile men, and that the sperm DNA damage may be cau...

Rehydrate -- your RNA needs it

...ectly observe and measure how quickly the ribozyme switched forms and how the rates changed when various parts of the molecule were altered. The situation in ribozymes contrasts with what happens in protein enzymes, which repel water from their cores and rely on direct contact, rather than a network of hydr...

Parkinson's disease mechanism discovered

...s involved in regulating trafficking could also be switched on to suppress alpha-synuclein toxicity in yeast cells. "Our findings indicated that this ER-to-Golgi trafficking pathway is intimately coupled to the pathology, although in humans there are likely others involved as well, given how many genes we fo...

Pest control research leads to pain control discovery

...of the National Academy of Sciences. The discovery switched the focus of the research from "pest control to pain control." M. Eric Gershwin, chief of the Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology at the UC Davis School of Medicine and a distinguished professor of medicine, called the discove...

Attacking cancer's sweet tooth is effective strategy against tumors

...earchers suspected that was because the cells have switched to an alternative means of producing ATP, namely glycolysis, but it was not clear if the glycolytic and mitochondrial pathways were connected in this fashion. It appears the two pathways are reciprocally linked. Fantin and her colleagues found that...

UC San Diego biologists solve plant growth hormone enigma

...family of auxin genes, and shows that each gene is switched on at a distinct location in the plant. Contrary to the current thinking in the field, the research shows that the patterns in which auxin is produced in the plant influence development, a finding that can be applied to improving crops. "The auxin...

Genes affecting blood pressure change as children become adults

... 18," says Dr. Snieder. "There are new genes being switched on that are involved in blood pressure and factors underlying blood pressure. I think that is the most interesting finding: the large amount of new genes that come into play." Even though the genes responsible for blood pressure regulation remain un...

HIV vaccine takes different tack to boosting immune response

...mmune response. Dendritic cells in which SOSC1 was switched off were able to induce an effective long-term memory immune response to HIV. "In mice, we were pretty consistent in activating anti-HIV immune responses," said Chen. "In most cases, we found a significant enhancement in both antibody and T-cell res...

Salk researchers make fast strides towards understanding how our body controls walking

...p, each burst of motor neuron activity needs to be switched off. Switching off motor neurons more quickly, speeds up the stepping movements, allowing animals to walk, run, or swim faster. ...

Waking a sleeping virus

...ses and to infect new host cells. Those have to be switched on, and ZEBRA functions as the switch which turns the cell into a factory to manufacture thousands of copies of the virus." One result is the disease infectious mononucleosis ?called the "kissing disease" because EBV is transmitted in saliva ?whose...

Cancer cells suppress large regions of DNA by a reversible process that can be tackled

...t to do now is determine if these same regions are switched off in other types of cancers". The team also hope that new cancer therapies, which can reverse DNA methylation, will restore the cell's normal regulation and treat and prevent cancer. ...

Mute swan population helps explain longstanding evolutionary question

... researcher Ann Charmantier. "Gradually the debate switched to an evolutionary point of view with a second, related question: Why is clutch size not evolving despite significant heritability and directional selection?" Many long-term studies of avian clutch size have looked for--but not seen-- an increase in...

Swiss researchers develop all-in-one remote control gene expression tool

...or the gene silencing via RNA interference--can be switched on or off at will. An all-in-one tool like this ?efficiently combining techniques that each previously required separate delivery ?will likely see wide use in genetic research and in clinical gene therapy applications. It is particularly applicable ...

Mapping alcohol brain damage

...oloured spots showing which genes are expressed or switched on in the sample. "What we're trying to find out is, what's different in the superior frontal cortex [front of brain] when you compare alcoholics with controls, that's not different in a spared area of the brain," Dr Dodd said. "In that way we ca...

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