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Tag: "surfaces" at biology news

Dirty snow may warm Arctic as much as greenhouse gases

...oot-infused snow is darker than natural snow. Dark surfaces absorb sunlight and cause warming, while bright surfaces reflect heat back into space and cause cooling. “When we inject dirty particles into the atmosphe...

Progress toward an antitumor vaccine

...ucins are mucilaginous substances that protect the surfaces of mucus membranes. They are glycoproteins—macromolecules with a central protein chain and long side chains made of polysaccharides. The modified MUC1 would be a good target molecule (antigen) for antibodies in immunological antitumor therapy. The...

In nature, proteins sweep up nanoparticles

...tree rings, and the proteins coated the particles’ surfaces and filled the gaps between them. “We found that the mineral aggregates, which are produced as a consequence of microbial activity, actually contain a lot of protein,” says Banfield. “This is very interesting because biomineralization has traditio...

Understanding why C. difficile causes disease -- it's hungry

...l, air, water, human and animal feces, and on most surfaces in hospital wards. The bacteria don't cause problems until they grow in abnormally large numbers in the intestinal tract. This can happen when the benign bacteria that normally inhabit the intestinal tract are reduced such as when people take antibio...

Experimental gene therapy 'abolishes' arthritis pain and lessens joint damage

...Proteins called receptors are built into the outer surfaces of human cells, enabling them react to the nutrien...es the number of opioid receptors expressed on the surfaces of nerve cells that carry pain messages back and forth between an osteoarthritic jaw joint and the s...

Detecting cold, feeling pain: Study reveals why menthol feels fresh

...ed mice did not discriminate between warm and cold surfaces until the temperature dropped to extremes. "It'...y insensitive to cold -- they avoided contact with surfaces below 10 degrees C, though with reduced efficiency -- the next step, says Julius, will be to illumin...

How to look at dinosaur tracks

...ent-day erosion that has exposed the track-bearing surfaces at different depths,?the researchers explain. “[They] demonstrate that great care should be taken when describing fossil footprints that have been exposed to subaerial erosion, because the shape, dimensions, and general appearance of the footprint be...

'Short-circuit' found in ocean circulation

...pid mixing across and rapid movement along density surfaces creates a 'short-circuit' in the overturning circulation, meaning it is more concentrated in this part of the Southern Ocean. The researchers made use of a unique signal - the spread of helium released naturally from the Earth’s interior at deep ...

Researchers develop way to calculate speed of bacterial sex

...port in ground water, and the colonization of soil surfaces by bacterial cells. Using a previously establis...ealed that bacterial transport and colonization of surfaces is as important a controlling factor for gene spread as was the rate of conjugation itself. It i...

Herpes infection may be symbiotic, help beat back some bacteria

...al infections that live in areas beyond epithelial surfaces like the skin, throat or intestines. For the new research, Virgin's group worked with strains of mouse herpes virus closely related to human Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus and cytomegalovirus. During studies of how m...

Navigable nanotransport

...ly increased number of folic acid receptors on the surfaces of their cells. The folic acid on the capsules docks into these sites and is brought into the interior of the cell. Here, the contents of the capsule, such as an antitumor drug or contrast agent, can be released to selectively attack the tumor or to ...

Nanotechnology meets biology and DNA finds its groove

...in the lab. "To get DNA molecules to do this on surfaces is really hard," says Schwartz. The system developed by Schwartz, de Pablo and their colleagues could change all of that. By figuring out a way to take individual DNA molecules and present them in a confined, linear fashion, the genetic information ...

McBride shows DNA detective work with paper-eating bacteria that 'glide'

... a "gliding bacterium," able to crawl rapidly over surfaces by an unknown mechanism, which is the main subject of McBride's research with another glider called Flavobacterium johnsoniae. The two microbes are not closely related. "You are more closely related to a fruit fly than these two organisms are to ea...

Cancer-killing invention also harvests stem cells

...selectins grab onto a specific carbohydrate on the surfaces of white blood cells, stem cells, and cancer cells... Because bone marrow stem cells stick to selectin surfaces more strongly than other cells, King's group coated a slender plastic tube with selectin. They then...

A rarity among arachnids, whip spiders have a sociable family life

...ylor, CALS '01, created cages with uniform plywood surfaces and found that the siblings grouped together but changed their location daily, suggesting individuals preferred proximity to each other over a specific location. When siblings were removed from a familiar cage and scattered about another large unfami...

Novel antigen-cloning technique may boost efforts to develop a melanoma vaccine

...ugh helper T cells contain receptors on their cell surfaces that are capable of recognizing and binding to tumor-related antigens, scientists have been stymied by the complex and time-consuming process required to isolate and clone the antigens for vaccine development. In working to identify a key tumor an...

Experimental vaccine given during pregnancy reduces stillbirths from common virus

...Dr. Schleiss. The virus can enter through mucosal surfaces such as the mouth or breaks in the skin. It can also be transmitted through nasal secretions, blood transfusions, and sexual contact. Most adults will become infected with CMV at some point during their lives. Dr. Schleiss added that pregnant wome...

Motor protein plays key role in connecting neurons

...Xiong says. She suspects that negative function surfaces when the spinal cord is cut and plans to examine whether the protein is degraded in spinal cord injuries. "We already have evidence that if this protein degrades, most frequently without its motor domain, it becomes negative, inhibits DCC getting to ...

Targeting tumors the natural way

...tegrins. These molecules, which tend to bedeck the surfaces of cancer cells and tumor vasculature in large num...isplay higher levels of certain receptors on their surfaces than do normal cells, a fact that allows scientists to pinpoint tumor cells lurking among the body's...

Engineering the heart piece by piece

...n made by other teams using different cell-growing surfaces and conditions, as well as hurdles that still lie ahead. In all, the authors say, bioengineered cardiac tissue holds immediate promise as a way to study heart disease and its treatment in cell cultures ?and promise over the longer term as a source of...

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