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Tag: "substance" at biology news

Scratch no more: Gene for itch sensation discovered

...., injected the spinal cords of normal mice with a substance that stimulates GRPR, the mice started scratching themselves as if they had a bad itch. "That's when we thought the gene might be involved in the itch sensation," Chen says. "So we began to systematically investigate this possibility." They studied ...

Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

...al biology and neuronal cell signaling.” Besides substance addiction, Stevens pointed to epilepsy, schizophrenia and depression as targets for improved drugs that could result from the study’s findings. The study provides the first detailed look at part of the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)...

Research identifies protein that signals flowering in squash plants

..., it strongly influences the production of another substance (i.e. florigen) that does. Recent work in a number of laboratories has focused on a role for FT protein and/or FT mRNA as the florigenic signal, and evidence is building that the FT protein is responsible, at least in tomato, rice, and the model plan...

Breakthrough developments in rheumatoid arthritis reported

...gh, scientists have discovered the importance of a substance called citrulline as a target for immune attack in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This immune system antibody associated with rheumatoid arthritis recognizes citrulline, which seems to be a key player in the condition. Indeed, the HLA associations with ...

Weizmann Institute scientists develop a general 'control switch' for protein activity

...ming of fruit ripening would be controlled using a substance that increases the activity of proteins responsible for ripening. Moreover, numerous proteins are used in industrial processes, as biological sensors and in other applications. The possibility of controlling these applications – strengthening or slow...

Statin treatment improves spatial memory in mouse models of Alzheimer's

... is responsible for the release of nitric oxide, a substance that causes dilation of the blood vessels in the brain, which eventually will increase blood flow and improve circulation to the memory region of the brain. These findings suggest that increases in brain nNos levels may play an important role in stat...

HIV survival improves if patients stay in care

...on. They are young. Often, they face challenges of substance abuse, mental health problems and financial issues. Now they have to stay in care the rest of their lives, which may be 20, 30, 40 or more years." Giordano's study, carried out in the Veterans Affairs population, determined that staying in care ma...

Implanting dopamine generators in brain cells obtains improvement in Parkinson's in monkeys

...esult of the loss of 50% of the cells of the black substance (the brain stem structure) that manufactures dopamine and sends out projections to the striate area. In order to implant dopaminergic cells in the brain, it is necessary to effect a trepanation through which the fragments from the carotid are inje...

A new portable biosensor detects traces of contaminants in food more quickly and cheaply

...atrazine, and other herbicides based on a chemical substance called triazine, often causes contamination both of underground water and overground water. For this reason food safety agencies have established control measures to prevent these pesticides entering the food chain. Similarly, antibiotics used to tre...

Individuals and populations differ in gene activity levels, not just genes

...vated during the process of translating DNA into a substance called RNA, and from that into basic proteins. The more a gene is expressed, the more "messenger" RNA is produced, leading to formation of more proteins corresponding to that gene. Those proteins are the building blocks that make up living cells and ...

Genome sequencing reveals key to viable ethanol production

...nging because the plants?cellulose is a very tough substance to break down, making for an inefficient process. Wu’s technique may prove much more effective than traditional methods. Instead of using separate steps to break down biomass into glucose and ferment the glucose into ethanol, as is currently done, ...

Studies force new view on biology of flavonoids

... in which only a very small amount of an offending substance is required to trigger a much larger metabolic response. Because of this, there would be no benefit ?and possibly some risk ?to taking dietary supplements that might inject large amounts of substances the body essentially sees as undesirable foreign ...

Heart failure: Intervention possibilities from imaging programmed cell loss

... each year. Researchers attached a radioactive substance to annexin A5, a protein that binds to dying cells, said Hofstra. They then used nuclear imaging that produces three-dimensional computer-reconstructed images to reveal information about both structure and function to measure the amount of annexin A5...

Mechanism of nicotine's learning effects explored

...cted signaling between neurons mediated by the key substance calcium. The researchers also discovered key details of the mechanisms by which nicotine excites different kinds of “interneurons?in the prefrontal cortex. Interneurons are the way-stations for neuronal impulses, passing neuronal signals from one ...

Common gene version optimizes thinking -- but with a possible downside

...tely linked this pivotal protein to depression and substance abuse as well as to schizophrenia," added NIMH Director Thomas Insel, M.D. To understand DARPP-32's role in the human brain, the NIMH researchers used genetic, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, and post-mortem techniques to id...

Putting an old drug to a new use

...idelberg and EMBL now found out that nifedipine, a substance commonly used to control blood pressure, helps the body deal with too much iron. "We observed in mice with iron overload that nifedipine helps mobilise iron from stores in the liver and enhances its excretion into the urine," says Weiss, an EMBL a...

Researchers from the UGR use a bacterium to obtain biopreservatives from food

...is), explains that AS-48 is a bacteriocin (protein substance with antimicrobial activity) produced by Enterococcus faecalis S-48. "The bacteriocin is characterized by its circular structure —that is, because of the joining of its ends?contrary to most of proteins, which have a beginning and an end." AS-48 is v...

Xylitol reduces risk of cavities

...zenges. The dissertation studies what effects the substance has on the ecology of the oral cavity and its role in preventing tooth decay (caries). In a series of studies on children and adolescents, samples of saliva and plaque were examined. Among other findings, it was determined that a daily intake of 3....

Long-term narcotics use for back pain may be ineffective and lead to abuse

...ients with chronic back pain, and the incidence of substance abuse disorders among patients receiving opioid medications for chronic back pain. The study populations consisted of non-obstetric patients over age 18 with non-malignant chronic back pain lasting for at least three months. The research focused ...

Pregnancy hormone key to repairing nerve cell damage

...es the spontaneous production of myelin, the fatty substance that coats nerve cells and plays a critical role i...nd identifies prolactin as a potential therapeutic substance for future testing in people with MS. "Agents promoting remyelination will be beneficial not onl...

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