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Tag: "structures" at biology news

Wisconsin scientists grow critical nerve cells

...s, may be that they are one of the earliest neural structures to emerge in a developing embryo. With the ticking clock of development in mind, Zhang and his team deduced that there is only a thin sliver of time - roughly the third and fourth week of human development - in which stem cells could be successfully ...

Man and mouse share genome structures

... researchers speculate that these unique chromatin structures could be activating sets of HOX genes for specific developmental programs. This global activation may have implications for understanding mechanisms behind certain cancers, Bernstein believes. For example, proteins that place methyl groups on histon...

UAB scientists discover the origin of a mysterious physical force

...kable capacity to organise themselves into complex structures that are strongly orientated in such a way as to cancel out the electric field, and on some occasions, to reverse it. This abnormal behaviour was discovered by the same researchers and published in Physical Review Letters in April 2004. The scientis...

University of Manchester makes made-to-measure skin and bones a reality using inkjet printers

...determines theshape of the tissue as it grows. The structures are created by printingvery thin layers of a material repeatedly on top of each other untilthe structure is built. Each layer is just 10 microns thick (1,000layers equals 1cm in thickness).This method allows larger tissues to be grown than previously...

Neuronal 'traffic jam' marks early Alzheimer's disease

...ling and prevents proper transport of proteins and structures in the cells, according to new studies by Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers. In mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and in human brain samples from people with the disease, researchers observed a characteristic breakdown in neurons that ap...

UW's Rosetta software to unlock secrets of many human proteins

...e FoldingProject, a global effort to determine the structures of theapproximately 60 percent of human proteins with no known function. "Howproteins fold determines how they are structured," said Lars Malmstroemof the UW laboratory that developed the program, "And how they arestructured is related to their func...

Plants, animals share molecular growth mechanisms

...allow it to grow, and they determine where certain structures in a cell are positioned and how plants respond to...aliana, and specifically looked at small, hairlike structures that exist on most cells. They found that the shape and size of these hairs, or trichomes, readily s...

Researchers find how protein allows insects to detect and respond to pheromones

...e FoldingProject, a global effort to determine the structures of theapproximately 60 percent of human proteins with no known function. "Howproteins fold determines how they are structured," said Lars Malmstroemof the UW laboratory that developed the program, "And how they arestructured is related to their func...

Researchers Uncover Key Step In Manufacture of Memory Protein

...he lipid rafts ?along with proBDNF ?in bubble-like structures known as vesicles. Within these vesicles, proBDNF is converted to mBDNF by other enzymes. The vesicles are then transported to the cell’s outer membrane, where they remain until they are ready to be secreted. Once the cell receives an electrical sign...

Plants respond similarly to signals from friends, enemies

...izobia then migrate into the root and form special structures called nodules, where they turn atmospheric nitrogen into usable nitrogen for the plant and, in return, take some of the plant's energy to survive. A similar relationship appeared when Weerasinghe studied the signals between plants and nematodes, eve...

Scientists seek answers on what activates deadly anthrax spores

...group also will be exploring the three-dimensional structures and the functions of the proteins involved. State-of-the-art facilities at the Center for Structural Biology will be used to determine how genetic information in the anthrax chromosome translates into a vast array of protein structures, Claiborne sai...

Molecular machine may lead to new drugs to combat human diseases

...s one tool to determine their purpose. Two intron structures in different stages of the cycle have been crystallized previously, and the targeted trans-splicing technique has been used to repair hemoglobin infected with sickle cell anemia. The new structure provides scientists with tools to expand on ways to h...

Yale Scientists Find MicroRNA Regulates Ras Cancer Gene

...dividing and fail to differentiate into the normal structures of the worm ?instead they make an excess of their cells. After identifying let-7 as a cell division regulator, Slack's team used bioinformatics and found the relationship to Ras. Let-7 in humans is identical to the sequence in the worm, and both bin...

Spider Venom Could Yield Eco-Friendly Insecticides

...ut not vertebrates. King is studying the molecular structures of the toxins that selectively target the nervous ...s colleagues have determined the three-dimensional structures of specific neurotoxins from the funnel-web spider -- toxins that either paralyze insects or send th...

Enzyme shown to help protect genomic stability

...mall proteins around which DNA is coiled to create structures called nucleosomes. Compact strings of nucleosomes, then, form into chromatin, the substructure of chromosomes. In many cases, when the DNA is tightly wrapped around the histones, the genes cannot be accessed and their expression is repressed. When t...

Needling Chromosomes Reveals Cell Division Secret

...nstitutes of Health. Chromosomes are thetiny fiber structures in the cell that house its genes. They replicateand separate in the process of cell division. The exquisite management of adhesion properties between newly divided chromosomes, called chromatids, is crucial if the cells are to divide properly. In th...

First 'atlas' of key brain genes could speed research on cancer, neurological diseases

...ntrolled thedevelopment of the particular areas or structures in which they wereuniquely expressed.Stiles is pursuing TF’s that direct the formation of astrocytes, whichare affected in tumors called gliomas. David Rowitch, MD, PhD, ofDana-Farber and an author on the paper, studies transcription factorsin the br...

Study shows nanoshells ideal as chemical nanosensors

...rying to probe the chemical processes within small structures such asindividual cells, or for the detection of very small amounts of amaterial, like a few molecules of a deadly biological or chemicalagent....

Researchers trace evolution to relatively simple genetic changes

...vious candidate for dramatically changing skeletal structures in wild animals that end up completely viable and healthy,' he said. "Eda gene mutations cause a disease in humans, but not in the fish. So this is the first time mutations have been found in this gene that are not associated with a clinical syndrome...

Octopuses occasionally stroll around on two arms, UC Berkeley biologists report

...vious candidate for dramatically changing skeletal structures in wild animals that end up completely viable and healthy,' he said. "Eda gene mutations cause a disease in humans, but not in the fish. So this is the first time mutations have been found in this gene that are not associated with a clinical syndrome...

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