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Tag: "structural" at biology news

Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

...sing X-ray diffuse scattering, the team quantified structural properties of different lipid bilayers seeded with FP-23 peptides. The lipid bilayers varied in their thicknesses, which affects the stiffness of cell membranes. The research was conducted at Cornell University’s CHESS synchrotron, which provides a ...

Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

...ed it “a landmark accomplishment for the fields of structural biology and neuronal cell signaling.” Besides substance addiction, Stevens pointed to epilepsy, schizophrenia and depression as targets for improved drugs that could result from the study’s findings. The study provides the first detailed look at ...

Cellular message movement captured on video

...ith receptors for growth factors and they are also structural attachment points that link the extracellular worl...s a docking station for a variety of signaling and structural proteins, they have been limited to visualizing paxillin with dyes that stain cells rigidly attached...

Researchers track how spores break out of dormant state

...ells initiate a series of genetic, biochemical and structural events that result in the formation of metabolically dormant spores. They can remain dormant for extended periods and, partly because of their tough spore coat, have a significant resistance to extreme environmental factors including heat, radiation ...

Modeling the restless brain

...tiple time scales that is shaped by the underlying structural topology," Sporns and Honey wrote in an article appearing this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences early edition online. The article, which will be available at http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0701519104 , includ...

CSIRO scientists join fight to save 'Tassie devil'

...anian devil’s hair to determine if any chemical or structural changes can be detected that can be correlated with the disease. “We are hoping we can work together to develop a pre-clinical diagnostic test based on recent developments in the diagnosis of human breast cancer,” Dr Church said. “Such a test wo...

Researchers reveal structure of protein altered in autism

...and to non-neuronal tissues such as muscle. These structural studies on neuroligins and neurexins represent a m...ic and formative. Therefore, by understanding the structural mutations that affect neurotransmission during development, new leads into drug therapies may emerge...

Progress toward an antitumor vaccine

...in. “Synthetic glycopeptide antigens containing structural elements typical of tumors in the sugar as well as the protein segment,” explains Kunz, “can thus be attached to the carrier protein in a controlled fashion. The largely nonimmunogenic thioether bridges could clear the way for the development of vacc...

Human genetic 'deserts' are teeming with significant life

... says. “It appears that the same nucleotide [the structural unit of DNA and RNA] on the genome can carry out a number of different, sometimes simultaneous, functions.” Professor Reymond’s team, in collaboration with other laboratories in Switzerland, the UK, the US and Spain, now intends to carry out the s...

A first -- Hebrew University scientist observes brain cell development in 'real time'

...re of brain research, said Dr. Mizrahi, since "the structural and functional complexity of nerve cells remains one of the biggest mysteries of neuroscience, and we now have a model to study this complexity directly." The results of Dr. Mizrahi’s groundbreaking work appeared in the online edition of Nature N...

Experimental gene therapy 'abolishes' arthritis pain and lessens joint damage

...t about a nearly 35 percent reduction in permanent structural to joints caused by round and after round of osteoarthritic inflammation. To date, treatment of arthritis is dominated by drug treatments like non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs, COX-2 inhibitors and acetominophen. Morphine and its derivatives...

Technique monitors thousands of molecules simultaneously

...or synthetic organic chemists has typically been a structural one ?how do we build molecules having novel structures? "We've worked very hard to develop new chemical reactions that allow us to make new structures that are either difficult or impossible to make with the synthetic tools available," he said. "B...

New technique will produce a better chromosome map

...e useable images and even those rarely offer crisp structural details, Novikov said. The new approach includes two components: the use of mechanical devices to spread and flatten the cells, and the application of computer-based image processing to analyze hundreds of examples of the same chromosomes. With so...

Gene mutation linked to cognition is found only in humans

...xtra 45 amino acids in this form may cause protein structural and functional changes. They note that in order to understand the genetic basis that underlies the traits that set humans apart from nonhuman primates, recent studies have focused on identifying genes that have been positively selected during human e...

UCLA AIDS Institute researchers find a peptide that encourages HIV infection

...ced viral infection five-fold. There are three structural varieties of peptides, also known as defensins ?alpha, beta and theta, Lehrer said. Humans have only alpha and beta; monkeys have all three. "Here's a peptide whose normal structure allows it to protect against viruses, yet if you make the same pe...

Decoding protein structures helps illuminate cause of diabetes

...ribed in the current study, they obtained a single structural scan of hIAPP in less than a second - more than 500 times faster than previously possible. The speed is crucial for trying to understand a dynamic process like hIAPP mis-folding, Zanni says. The group now plans to capture series of snapshots ...

Study of protein folds offers insight into metabolic evolution

...nt. "Protein architecture has preserved ancient structural designs as fossils of ancient biochemistries," the authors wrote. The team used data from two international compilations of genetic and proteomic information: the metabolic pathways database of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and the ...

Fused nasal bones helped tyrannosaurids dismember prey

...ds. In one of the first studies that looked at the structural mechanics of dinosaur skulls, the scientists used CT scans to investigate such factors as teeth bending strength and nasal and cranium strength. The research is published in the journal Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. Tyrannosaurids differ from ot...

2 brains -- 1 thought

... real network, one could for example analyse which structural optimisation principles function in evolution," sa...ell-understood. Has evolutionary pressure kept the structural complexity of such networks to a minimum - or could there have been other networks with an even simp...

Gut research yields new anti-cancer approach

...part of the skeleton of cells. Beyond providing structural support and shape to cells, microtubules expand and shrink to generate the force needed for cells to divide, a basic process in tumor growth. Microtubules are made of two related proteins, alpha and beta tubulin, which pair up to form a chain and the...

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