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Tag: "stretch" at biology news

Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

...e. Fusion takes place specifically through a short stretch of gp41 called fusion peptide 23, or FP-23 for short. Prior studies have shown that FP-23 fuses with, and can even break apart, blood cells and other man-made, cell-like structures called liposomes. FP-23 likely plays several roles in viral fusion, ...

Cigarette smoke alters DNA in sperm, genetic damage could pass to offspring

... or 12 weeks to look for alterations in a specific stretch of repeated portions of DNA, called Ms6-hm, which does not contain any known genes. The “smoking” mice were exposed to two cigarettes per day, the equivalent – based on blood levels of tobacco by-products – of an average human smoker, according to re...

Mutating the entire genome

...lls are less likely to yield mice with the desired stretch of DNA disabled, Capecchi says. To quickly, ch... of 10 percent of the offspring, the desired large stretch of DNA is either deleted or duplicated so scientists can see what goes wrong in the mutant mouse and...

'Insulator' helps silence genes in dormant herpes virus

... The researchers have identified an "insulator" ?a stretch of DNA about 800 base pairs long ?that serves as a physical barrier between active and inactive regions of the virus genome. Base pairs are the nucleotides on each side of the rungs that connect the strands of the DNA ladder. "By establishing an i...

Rare soft-shell turtle, nesting ground found in Cambodia

...ne, but found it in abundance in this one pristine stretch of the Mekong, making the area the world’s most im...ruction from dams, irrigation and dredging. The stretch of Mekong River where the turtle lives is an area closed for many years to scientific exploration be...

Tracking sperm whales and jumbo squid

...California, also called the Sea of Cortez—a narrow stretch of ocean that separates the Mexican mainland from the Baja Peninsula. "The central Gulf of California is a uniquely advantageous location to study the behavioral ecology of sperm whales and their squid prey," the authors wrote. "Sperm whales are a...

Protein fragments sequenced in 68 million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex

...2003 in Hell Creek Formation, a barren fossil-rich stretch of land that spans several states, including Wyoming and Montana. Schweitzer and colleagues reported in 2005 that they had found evidence of soft tissue inside the fossilized femur, a discovery widely covered. After seeing one such story in the New Y...

Exploring the molecular origin of blood clot flexibility

...olecular spring, explaining one way that clots may stretch and bend under such physical stresses as blood flo... other scientists showed that a fibrin fiber could stretch four to five times its original length before snapping. "This is among the most extensible, or stret...

Erectile dysfunction in diabetes is due to selective defect in the brain

...tudy examined induced penile erection, yawning and stretch in diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes were used as they exhibit sexual and behavioral symptoms similar to those found in diabetic men with sexual dysfunction. The researchers focused on th...

Scientists map key landmarks in human genome

...ng been assumed that these factors can't bind to a stretch of DNA that is bound by a nucleosome; they can, however, attach to DNA "linkers" between two nucleosomes. With their new method, Fisher's group found that transcription factor binding indeed typically occurs in the "linker" regions in between nucleos...

Conceptualizing a cyborg

...erface, the team used a newly developed process of stretch growth of nerve fibers called axons, previously pioneered in Smith's lab. Two adjacent plates of neurons are grown in a bioreactor. Axons sprout out to connect the neuron populations on each plate. The plates are then slowly pulled apart over a ser...

Stretching DNA to the limit

...es with the tip of a scanning probe microscope and stretch it while measuring the forces generated. These "stretch—release" measurements enable the accurate determination of changes in the elasticity of the DNA strands. Upon exposure to UV light, the force profile of the viral DNA changes dramatically in a d...

Ape gestures offer clues to the evolution of human communication

...context in which it is used. "A chimpanzee may stretch out an open hand to another as a signal for support, whereas the same gesture toward a possessor of food signals a desire to share," said Pollick. "A scream, however, is a typical response for victims of intimidation, threat or attack. This is so for...

Peering into the shadow world of RNA

... RNA that specifically targets and inactivates the stretch of DNA from which it originated. In the case of transposons, this would effectively limit their ability to act, thus protecting the genome from potential disruption. ...

An AIDS-related virus tricks cells to become tumors, new Penn study finds

...itylation process," says Robertson. This motif, or stretch of amino acids, normally enables LANA to bind to tumor suppressors p53 or VHL, thus bringing them into the active ubiquitylation complex. Once in the complex, the tumor suppressors are targeted for degradation. Tumor suppressors, as their name im...

Detailed 3-D image catches a key regulator of neural stem cell differentiation in action

...ike Scp1 precisely recognize that seven amino acid stretch is exactly the kind of "unambiguous information relevant for the design of a chemical inhibitor by a process known as structure-based drug design." Capitalizing on information gleaned from their structural studies, Noel's lab has already started t...

Nanotech tools yield DNA transcription breakthrough

...t move to reach adjacent DNA segments; nor does it stretch to reach adjacent DNA segments (as had been propos...rument referred to as "magnetic tweezers" to hold, stretch and twist a single molecule of DNA having a single start site for transcription. They then read out ...

Study: Living coral reefs provide better protection from tsunami waves

...ow much any given reef will benefit its particular stretch of coast. "Healthy reefs have rougher surfaces, which provide friction that slows the waves substantially in comparison with smoother, unhealthy ones," said Oppenheimer, the Albert G. Milbank Professor of Geosciences and International Affairs. "Sc...

Bird flu vaccine additive may stretch supply

...nt." This suggests that adjuvants might be used to stretch a limited vaccine supply and allow vaccination of greater numbers of people. Neither group experienced serious reactions to the vaccines. However, mild pain or swelling was more common in the adjuvant group....

Scientists solve 30-year-old mystery of mutant mouse's kidney woes

... principal cells of the collecting duct, the final stretch of the kidney filtration machinery," Chen says. "Water and some other useful components are reabsorbed from the urine here. The concentrated urine is then passed on to the bladder and other downstream parts of the urinary system." When scientists u...

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