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Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

... door open and closed.” Cutting the sugar chains stopped the gate’s operation, according to Chen, who said, “The sugar is critical, in my opinion.” The researchers also found a water molecule deep in the receptor’s core – significant because proteins normally are filled with hydrophobic (water repellent)...

Smallpox outbreak: How long would it take for vaccines to protect people? Would it work?

... General routine vaccinations for smallpox were stopped in the United States in 1971, and the world was declared free of smallpox in 1980. But because of the recent concern about biowarfare and bioterrorism throughout the world, the U.S. government is making efforts to improve its ability to protect its c...

HIVMA opposes The Gambia's unproven AIDS remedy

... had been doing well on antiretroviral therapy but stopped taking the drugs in order to qualify to receive his "cure." HIVMA joins its colleagues in the International AIDS Society and the Society for AIDS in Africa in expressing great concern regarding this practice. "There currently is no cure for HIV/A...

Flies don't buzz about aimlessly!

How you ever stopped to wonder how a fruit fly is able to locate and blissfully drown in your wine glass on a warm summer evening, especially since its flight path seems to be so erratic? Mark Frye at the University of California and Andy Reynolds at Rothamsted Research ...

Arsenic in chicken feed may pose health risks to humans, C&EN reports

...ntroversy. A growing number of food suppliers have stopped using the compound, including the nation’s largest poultry producer, Tyson Foods, according to the article. Still, about 70 percent of the 9 billion broiler chickens produced annually in the U.S. are fed a diet containing roxarsone, the article point...

Shedding new light on proteorhodopsin

...ls swam when they were exposed to green light, but stopped when they were exposed to red light." In the absence of the azide respiratory poison, green light had no effect on the flagellar motors of these proteorhodopsin-equipped E. coli. By measuring the pmf of individual illuminated cells under differen...

New cell type identified in cancer development

...o, "because these precancerous cells were actually stopped from becoming malignant. We are calling this process ‘differentiation-induced cell death,?a protective mechanism the body may invoke to prevent pCSCs from maturing into full-blown cancer stem cells." It was a different story with the mice with im...

Short chromosomes put cancer cells in forced rest

A Johns Hopkins team has stopped in its tracks a form of blood cancer in mice by en...s discovered that the mice had short telomeres and stopped developing lymphomas. When the researchers blocked the suicide machinery in these fifth-generati...

Army research mission focused on autism

...ll of the time, with infection after infection. He stopped eating and was no longer happy and playful. By 17 months he had stopped talking, interacting, or even looking at us anymore; he was in his own little world. At four years o...

How T lymphocytes attack

...ried in antigen-containing tumour; when the tumour stopped growing because of the lymphocyte injection three or four days previously, the defenders patrolled slowly (4 micrometres per minute) and halted frequently. Their mean rate reached a plateau at 4 micrometres per minute. Then, during later stages whe...

Growth hormone to boost athletic performance risks diabetes

...ounter the effects of high blood sugar, but he had stopped taking it after a couple of episodes of acute low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) while at the gym. Tests revealed that his liver was inflamed, his kidneys were enlarged and that he had very high blood sugar. He was also dehydrated, and diagnosed with...

Widely used hepatitis B drug spurs HIV drug resistance

...versity School of Medicine. Thio says she has stopped prescribing entecavir as her first option in treating hepatitis B in co-infected patients who are not already using drugs to suppress HIV. "The good news is that co-infected patients already on HIV therapy can still use entecavir to treat their he...

Trying to control pain can be a double-edged sword, say scientists

...he pain was out of their control and could only be stopped by a person or computer outside the room. Using one of the centre's fMRI scanners, the researchers were able to show that a number of areas of the brain were activated according to whether the volunteer felt in control of the pain. Most important ...

PET imaging shows young smokers quick benefit of quitting

... "preserved" six months after the study's subjects stopped smoking, "supporting the value of smoking cessation for prevention of coronary artery disease particularly in the young," said Tamaki. "This study provided a noninvasive look at the early stages of coronary artery disease in smokers and the recove...

LSD treatment for alcoholism gets new look

...2, 65 per cent of the alcoholics in the experiment stopped drinking for at least a year-and-a-half (the duration of the study) after taking one dose of LSD. The controlled trial also concluded that less than 25 per cent of alcoholics quit drinking for the same period after receiving group therapy, and less t...

Studies find general mechanism of cellular aging

...s of p16INK4a, "islet cells aged prematurely; they stopped dividing early." "This suggests that if we could attenuate p16INK4a expression in some way in humans, it could lead to enhanced islet re-growth in adults and a possible new treatment for diabetes," Sharpless said. Similar results were found in the ...

Artificial cornea offers better results for infants, some blind patients

...me about with natural tissue. Aquavella himself stopped doing procedures with artificial implants for several years because of the poor results and high rates of complication. Meanwhile, Aquavella's former mentor, Claes Dohlman, M.D., of the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, was evaluating new types of...

Seals protect brain, conserve oxygen by turning off shivering response on icy dives

...e diving. The seals shivered on the surface but stopped or nearly stopped shivering when they dove, even though their bodies continued to cool. Their heart rates and temperat...

'Trojan Horse' agent halts bone metastasis in mice

...arch that this "Trojan Horse" agent, VEGF121/rGel, stopped specialized cells within the bone from chewing up other bone material to make room for the implanted tumor to grow. Although this study tested the ability of VEGF121/rGel to halt the growth of human prostate cancer cells in the bones of mice, inve...

Leading reason for corneal transplants comes into focus

... genetic variants of the disease out there." He stopped wondering a few years later when he examined the Indiana family and discovered what he thought at the time was the youngest case of FCD ever described in the scientific literature, the 10-year-old boy. However, literature published 25 years ago descr...

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