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Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

...e as the link between the neurotransmitter binding site and the membrane region where the gate is located,” Chen said. “The sugar is kind of like a hinge. It’s pulling the door open and closed.” Cutting the sugar chains stopped the gate’s operation, according to Chen, who said, “The sugar is critical,...

Brain inflammation may be friend, not foe, for Alzheimer's patients

... acting more like an ambulance crew helping at the site of a road wreck, not causing the crash. The work suggests that doctors not rush in to turn off molecular events that scientists have widely considered to be detrimental in people with the disease. The findings could also renew efforts to develop a...

Old memory traces in brain may trigger chronic pain

...sentially gets stuck in the prefrontal cortex, the site of emotion and learning. The brain seems to remember the injury as if it were fresh and can’t forget it. With new understanding of the pain source, Vania Apkarian, professor of physiology, and of anesthesiology, at Northwestern’s Feinb...

Researchers examine carbon capture and storage to combat global warming

...e said. ''If you do it right, if you select the site correctly and monitor, it can be near permanent,'' Benson said. Of greater concern to the researchers are the potential risks of carbon sequestration to human health, mainly through asphyxiation and groundwater contamination. The threat of asph...

Undergraduate research shows leaderless honeybee organizing

...s need to make the queen fly again once a new nest site has been selected. “Drew Pierce did this project last summer,” Schneider explained. “We constructed a special observation stand where we could actually see how workers were interacting with queens inside a swarm cluster, where they are hanging...

Genetic factors are linked to fever following smallpox vaccination

...ne complex, and especially the IL-1A gene, was the site most significantly associated with different risks of fever. “Vaccines are the safest and most effective way to prevent a number of very important childhood and adult diseases,” Dr. Stanley remarked. “Our work is designed to identify ways we mi...

New findings challenge established views on human genome

...be located downstream of a transcription start site on a DNA strand as upstream. Identification of specific signatures of change in histones, which are the proteins that organize DNA, and correlation of these signatures with different genomic functions. Deeper understanding of how DNA replication ...

Blood-brain barrier breached by new therapeutic strategy

... that result in only localized delivery around the site of injection. The new research provides a safe and non-invasive method for delivering therapeutic molecules across the blood-brain barrier. It has the potential to be applied to the treatment of a variety of brain infections and diseases. The researc...

How 'memory' T cells curb the spread of viruses throughout the body

...te through the blood to kill infected cells at the site where the virus entered the body (most commonly th...ut the need to migrate from the lymph nodes to the site of viral entry. “It was very difficult to imagine how the memory T cells could win this race,” sa...

Surprising origin of cell's internal highways

...he said. In addition to identifying this novel site of microtubule nucleation, Kaverina and colleagues also examined the molecular mechanisms governing the process. They found that proteins normally associated with the plus ends of microtubules, called CLASPs, localize to a specific compartment of the...

St. Jude study shows genes play an unexpected role in their own activation

...P/p300 to the gene by binding to this protein at a site called KIX. Previously, scientists thought that a particular transcription factor uses the same co-factors to activate all its target genes. The new findings showed that phosphate-tagged CREB binding to CBP/p300 at KIX does not account for most g...

Definitive evidence found of a swimming dinosaur

...ong trackway, located in La Virgen del Campo track site in Spain's Cameros Basin, contains the first long ...eters of water. Ripple marks on the surface of the site indicate the dinosaur was swimming against a current, struggling to maintain a straight path. "Th...

Experimental gene therapy 'abolishes' arthritis pain and lessens joint damage

...n ground between arthritis and dentistry: a common site of arthritic pain is the jaw joint. Study Details Proteins called receptors are built into the outer surfaces of human cells, enabling them react to the nutrients, toxins and hormones around them. Each receptor is designed to react with a spe...

Technique monitors thousands of molecules simultaneously

...elected electrode was actually made at the desired site using the electrode. This allowed for the desired reaction at only electrodes that were turned on. To keep the palladium(II) from going to a neighboring electrode a second reagent was added to the solution above the chip that destroyed the palladium(...

First clinical trial of gene therapy for childhood blindness

... that we can deliver genes to an extremely fragile site in the eye without complications." Professor Moore said: "Some indications of the results of the trial may be available within several months. However, the subjects will need to be followed-up to assess the long term effect of the treatment. It ...

Traumas like Sept. 11 make brains more reactive to fear

...ness, thinking about the incident and avoiding the site of the trauma), but they are not severe. However, the kinds of changes that these traumas cause in the brain, the researchers suspect, create vulnerability to developing future mental disorders. Specifically, the Cornell researchers found that thre...

Anthrax paralyzes immune cells with lethal toxin, UF research shows

...fenses and prevents immune cells from reaching the site of infection. Anthrax killed five people in 2001 when letters containing the bacteria's spores were sent through the mail. The UF findings, published last week in the EMBO Journal, may lead to quicker diagnoses for anthrax victims. The disease ca...

Gene mutation linked to cognition is found only in humans

...ern of the neuropsin gene, creating a new splicing site and a longer protein. Introducing this mutation i...ng effect of a different, type I-specific splicing site and a significant reduction in type I neuropsin expression in human and chimpanzee when compared wit...

Diminishing dinosaur steps saved by laser and laptop

...the fragile environment and the sensitivity of the site we were not permitted direct contact and therefore...ly, but there are now plans to make it a protected site of special scientific interest. Dr Manning was part of the UNESCO team who initially evaluated th...

DNA repair proteins monitored at double-strand break

...round a spool. Disruption of the nucleosome at the site of a double-strand break allows the DNA to unravel...showed that ATM initially binds to DNA both at the site of the break as well as on each side of it. However, XRCC4 later takes the place of ATM molecules at...

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