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Tag: "simple" at biology news

Identified main genetic variants involved in response to HIV

...potential candidates. These variations, known as simple nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), are single variations affecting only one nucleotide or base of the genomic sequence. Despite humans sharing 99.9% of the genome sequence, there are still 3 million genetic variations –which make us different from one ...

Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

...hen group’s study of crystal structure suggested a simple mechanical role for sugar molecules attached to the surface of the receptor. “They serve as the link between the neurotransmitter binding site and the membrane region where the gate is located,” Chen said. “The sugar is kind of like a hinge. It’s...

Simulations unravel outer membrane transport mechanism

...outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria is not a simple task. The cells must be selective in what substances they take up, and the outer membrane contains no energy-generating machinery to power the job of hauling large molecules inside. The new study examined an outer membrane transport system that de...

The insect vector always bites twice

...s. Starting from immunogenic salivary proteins, simple and effective prevention tools (immuno-tests) can be devised to assess the exposure of human subjects, or be used in endemic areas to evaluate the efficacy of existing vector control strategies, such as the use of impregnated mosquito nets. Analysis ...

Studies to find better ways to preserve human eggs, ovarian tissue under way

...y,” says Dr. Song. Slow cooling works well for simple tissue, such as sperm or even embryos, and for blood. “In blood, for example, conventional cryopreservation freezes the liquid part but not the cells inside. Liquid freezes and the water inside the cells moves out gradually so they dehydrate,” Dr. So...

Penn researchers link cell's protein recycling systems

...his link to rescue neurodegenerative diseases in a simple animal model. The study appears this week in Nature. The cell has two internal pathways for breaking down proteins. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway marks unwanted proteins with ubiquitin tags and shuttles them for rapid breakdown to a complicate...

Exploring the dark matter of the genome

... functional analysis of those portions (other than simple repeats) of the heterochromatic DNA of Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly. The results confirm that heterochromatin is far from mere junk. "Most researchers thought heterochromatin had little or no function, because it appeared to lack the pr...

Marine phytoplankton changes form to protect itself from different predators

...so shows how environmental factors can affect even simple organisms, Hay noted. Phaeocystis suppresses colony formation in the presence of chemical signals from copepods and remains as small, solitary cells like these that are only a few micrometers in diameter. Conducted largely at Georgia Tech...

Runners -- Let thirst be your guide

... much they really sweat while exercising, but this simple test can tell you approximately how much fluid losses you are generating from sweat,” he says. “There is no need to drink significantly more than that, because sweat represents the major source of fluid loss during exercise.” A healthy person need...

Mutating the entire genome

...ound a way to do this job on a large scale that is simple and practical.” Capecchi says: “We developed a method for deleting any piece of DNA from the mouse genetic blueprint very efficiently.” The new method for mutating large, non-gene stretches of DNA is outlined in this week’s online edition of ...

Weizmann Institute scientists develop a general 'control switch' for protein activity

...completely. The method provides researchers with a simple and effective tool for exploring the function of u...s by giving exact and well-timed doses of the same simple drug. In addition, the method could be used one day in gene therapy. It may be possible to repla...

Understanding why C. difficile causes disease -- it's hungry

...ind why C. difficile causes disease have come to a simple conclusion -- the bacteria do it because they are starving. That just might help them find a new treatment for what can sometimes be a very difficult disease to treat. "The genes responsible for toxin production only seem to be expressed during per...

Ants show us how to make super-highways

...Powell. "Broadly, our research demonstrates that a simple but highly specialised behaviour performed by a minority of ant workers can improve the performance of the majority, resulting in a clear benefit for the society as a whole." Their experiments showed that individuals size-match to the hole they pl...

New designer lipid-like peptide with lipid nanostructures for drug delivery systems

...nsity of lipidic nanostructures can be varied in a simple manner. Dr. Anan Yaghmur, first author of the study, comments on the study, “the addition of small amounts of designer lipid-like peptides is sufficient to form systems with excellent potential for various biotechnological applications such as th...

Mule deer moms rescue other fawns

...other fawns is likely based not on altruism but on simple survival, said Lingle. "Having a rigid and aggressive response to the simple sound of a fawn distress call may ensure effective defence of a female's own offspring, even though ...

An 'elegant' idea proves its worth 25 years later

The simple notion of copying the body’s own natural "waste disposal" chemistry to mop up potentially toxic nitrogen has saved an estimated 80 percent of patients with urea cycle disorders --- most of them children – according to a report in this week’s New Engl...

Machine preservation may promote more organ sharing

...o the organs during organ recovery. However, with simple cold storage, the kidneys are simply immersed in p...95 kidneys were preserved with machine and 25 with simple cold storage preservation techniques. Despite the fact that the machine-preserved kidneys were ...

Scientists discover rare 'gene-for-gene' interaction that helps bacteria kill their host

...The immune systems of all animals, even relatively simple ones like insects, are all very similar. "This is particularly true of the innate immune system, which is the fast-acting battery of defences that recognise and kill microbes to prevent infections from occurring. "Some remarkable discoveries ha...

Corals -- More complex than you?

... with the human complement of 20-23,000." Why a simple creature should have such a huge genetic repertoir...tic repertoire of corals and how it functions in a simple animal, we will gain new insights which will help in the battle against human disease, he adds. T...

Simple home spit test to spot deadly pre-eclampsia

A simple spit test designed to detect pre-eclampsia in the early stages is being trialed in a UK hospital, reports Cath O'Driscoll in Chemistry & Industry, the magazine of the SCI. The test, which is designed to be used at home, will allow mums-to-be to c...

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