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Tag: "signatures" at biology news

New findings challenge established views on human genome

...A strand as upstream. Identification of specific signatures of change in histones, which are the proteins that organize DNA, and correlation of these signatures with different genomic functions. Deeper understanding of how DNA replication is coordinated by mo...

Legal ruling may put endangered species in danger

...cs at Michigan State University, have collected 38 signatures on the letter protesting the newly restricted definition of "endangered" or "threatened" species. It's a stellar list, including ecological luminaries Edward O. Wilson, Pellegrino Research Professor in Entomology, Harvard University; Gus Speth, d...

Chemical maps hint at drug's effects on schizophrenia

...g, in San Diego, Kaddurah-Daouk said that chemical signatures measured by metabolomics were different for schizo...ith three different antipsychotic medications, the signatures differed according to which drug was used, giving researchers a tool to explore the metabolic side e...

Beyond the DNA: Chemical signatures reveal genetic switches in the genome

...rchitecture in human cells and discovered distinct signatures of modified histones that correspond to known promoters and enhancers. These findings enabled us to generate computational algorithms that identified hundreds of novel genomic regions with regulatory potential." Moreover, says Heintzman, this 'histon...

Genes and biomarkers that allow doctors to choose the right therapy for the right patient

...ational Laboratory have identified gene expression signatures that could serve as biomarkers to predict how indi... enzyme inhibitor. These studies defined molecular signatures that predicted individual responses among the cell lines to the drugs. For Lapatinib, the strongest...

Bats prey on nocturnally migrating songbirds

...year, predicting major seasonal shifts in isotopic signatures towards bird prey in spring and, especially, during autumn. In parallel, isotopic signatures of whole insect bodies and passerine muscular tissues were tracked throughout the year, serving as a...

Liposuctioned fat stem cells to repair bodies

...cell is likely to turn into." These epigenetic signatures have grabbed everyone’s attention, acknowledges Ernest Arenas, a EuroSTELLS researcher at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. "Scientists in the stem cell field are starting to realise that for cell manipulations to succeed they need to pa...

Nanoparticles can track cells deep within living organisms

...rack cells used in medical treatments using unique signatures from the ingested nanoparticle beacons. In an article that will appear in the June issue of the FASEB Journal, lead author Kathryn C. Partlow, a doctoral student in Wickline's lab, describes using perfluorocarbon nanoparticles to label endothelia...

T-ray breakthrough could make detecting disease far easier

...easily, as many complex molecules have distinctive signatures in this part of the electromagnetic spectrum. T-ray applications are presently limited by the relatively poor ability to focus the rays, which is achieved using the conventional means of lenses and mirrors to focus the radiation. This limits the ...

Scientists find a key to immune system's ability to remember

...nown as antigen receptors that act to identify the signatures of pathogens like measles virus and HIV, agents that hide inside cells. Lck is important in helping "naive" T cells -- those cells that have never been exposed to a particular pathogen -- capture the receptor template of the invading agent and sto...

Genetic 'roadmap' charts links between drugs and human disease

...nectivity Map, the scientists measured the genomic signatures of more than 160 drugs and other biologically acti...y next developed a computer program to compare the signatures of the drugs with each other and also with the signatures seen in diseases. Using the Connectivity M...

Scientists use gene signatures to match cancer and other diseases with potentially effective drugs

...mic scientists and companies alike can compare the signatures of diseases and compounds to signatures in the Connectivity Map database, and, from that, generate hypotheses," Golub said. The strategy a...

First-ever genomic test predicts which lung cancer patients need chemotherapy to live

... the Duke researchers. "Using the unique genomic signatures from each tumor, our new test predicted with up to 90 percent accuracy which early-stage lung cancer patients would suffer a recurrence of their cancer and which patients would not," said Anil Potti, M.D., an assistant professor of medicine and lead ...

Time of day tempers tadpoles' response to predators

... Fraker exposed tadpoles in a tank to the chemical signatures of dragonfly larvae for one hour during the day and one hour at night. Then he recorded their swimming and feeding activity during and after exposure. Both during the day and at night, the tadpoles initially responded similarly to the chemical cues, ...

Researchers map out networks that determine cell fate

...l chemical signal, these cells take on the genetic signatures of two different cell types. It often requires a second signal for them to commit to a single cellular identity. In the Aug. 25 2006 issue of Cell, the researchers, working with hematopoietic stem cells, which give rise to the many types of blood c...

AIDS-related cognitive impairment exists in two separate forms

... upper 9/10s of the crypt. The difference in miRNA signatures between these two crypt regions, they reasoned, would distinguish stem cell from non-stem cell activity. They found a distinct signature of 16 miRNAs that characterizes the crypt bottom. Further analysis revealed that the expression pattern of these ...

Markers of gene, protein, or micro-RNA activity predict outcome in prostate and colorectal cancers

... upper 9/10s of the crypt. The difference in miRNA signatures between these two crypt regions, they reasoned, would distinguish stem cell from non-stem cell activity. They found a distinct signature of 16 miRNAs that characterizes the crypt bottom. Further analysis revealed that the expression pattern of these ...

Where 'jumping genes' fear to tread

...ttick. "It appears that TFRs might be the passive signatures of one or more poorly understood mechanisms of gene regulation that operate in higher organisms, suggesting a wider role for noncoding sequences than has hitherto been appreciated." The work was conducted under Mattick's guidance by graduate student...

Scientists discover new genetic subtypes of common blood cancer

...s found evidence suggesting that certain molecular signatures within the subgroups are responsible for the differences in outcomes, providing a clear and productive path for further research. This narrowing down of potential genes and proteins within the subgroups "is a huge advance," comments DePinho. "If you...

Novel molecular 'signature' marks DNA of embryonic stem cells

...egulatory genes for embryonic development. "These signatures appear frequently in ES cells, but largely disappear once the cells choose a direction developmentally," said Bernstein. "This suggests they play a significant role in regulating the cells' unique plasticity." The remarkable design of bivalent doma...

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