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Dysentery uses 'sword and shield' to cause infection

...eria able to use this 'sword and shield' approach, showing how dysentery is able to infect the body so effectively. We have shown why the bacteria can avoid being destroyed by the body's immune responses through the expression of a molecule that acts as a shield on its surface." The researchers found that s...

Poor prenatal nutrition permanently damages function of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas

...an adolescence), the low-birth-weight babies began showing higher levels of blood glucose. "By 6 months, these levels had spiked abnormally, to 500 mg/dl -- the equivalent of serious, full-blown diabetes in humans," Dr. Patti said. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot make the hormone insulin at all; abo...

Controversial drug shown to act on brain protein to cut alcohol use

...ntists first carried out classic behavioralstudies showing that Ibogaine reduced alcohol consumption. They inducedthe rats to consume alcohol in daily drinking sessions and thendemonstrated that their drinking declined precipitously when theyreceived Ibogaine. The drug was administered either by injection or...

Termites feed through good vibrations

...c into small blocks did not affect termite choice, showing that the termites were not interested in random noise. These results show two responses by the termites: one to block size and a second to signal source. The artificial signal mimicked the characteristic frequency of the wooden block, so the termite...

Mouse brain cells rapidly recover after Alzheimer's plaques are cleared

...ible for nerve-cell branches to send signals.After showing that the swellings were mostly stable in number and sizeover the course of three to seven days, Brendza injected Abetaantibodies directly onto the surface of the mouse brains. In the regionof the injection, the antibodies cleared the plaques, confirm...

Key molecule in plant photo-protection identified

...ible for nerve-cell branches to send signals.After showing that the swellings were mostly stable in number and sizeover the course of three to seven days, Brendza injected Abetaantibodies directly onto the surface of the mouse brains. In the regionof the injection, the antibodies cleared the plaques, confirm...

The secret lives of whales

...ily growing population, with drastic declines only showing up in recent history. “Whales have shown remarkable resilience to cataclysmic events - until the last one ?which is us,?says Palumbi. “Ice ages, sea level change and even loss of local food sources did not interrupt their lives. Living in a fluid env...

Leukemia Drug Breakthrough Study In New England Journal Of Medicine

...phase I/II trial of the experimental drug Revlimid showing promise as an innovative way to treat patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a form of pre-leukemia. Given in pill form, Revlimid simultaneously blocks the growth of new blood vessels that nourish tumors (anti-angiogenesis) and stimulates the ...

An HIV Protein Plays a Surprising Role in Gene Activation

...olleagues confirmed this hypothesis in experiments showing that Tat-driven transcription proceeded as usual in cells lacking TAFs. And they demonstrated that it is Tat—along with its cofactor P-TEFb, which is normally bound to RNA through Tat—that recruits the TAF-deficient TBP. Altogether, these results sh...

Poplar trees redirect resources in response to simulated attack

...toradiography allows for taking a snapshot in time showing the precise location of the radiotracer within the plant. With this and other techniques, the scientists can compare what that plant does with the carbon dioxide both before and after an attack. "Carbon dioxide is a plant's major resource. To see ho...

Scientists rid stem cell culture of key animal cells

...e heels of a recent University of California study showing that existing stem cell lines are already contaminated with an animal molecule. The potential threat of animal pathogens tainting human stem cell lines poses a problem for the safe clinical use of many, if not all, of the current cell lines now in us...

First 'atlas' of key brain genes could speed research on cancer, neurological diseases

...rber Cancer Institutehave compiled the first atlas showing the locations of crucial generegulators, or switches that determine how different parts of the braindevelop ?and, in some cases, develop abnormally or malfunction.The scientists say the map will accelerate research on brain tumors andneurological dis...

Gene Therapy For Parkinson's Disease Moves Forward In Animals

...ted since trials in humans ended last year without showing clinical improvements. Amgen, the world's largest ... insight into how to protect neural cells. This is showing us a new way to approach the problem.?/p> Parkinson's disease is caused by the death of brain ce...

First real-time view of developing neurons reveals surprises, say Stanford researchers

... respond to images. Niell set up a tiny LCD screen showing squares the size of the fish's favorite planktonic food moving up and down or left and right. They expected to find that young neurons fire in response to a variety of different images, then refine their role over time so that in the adult fish the ...

Scientists identify new model Of NK cell development

...te in Caligiuri's laboratory, had noted other work showing that mice lacking lymph nodes also lacked NK cells. In addition, in earlier research in Caligiuri's laboratory, scientists had identified two distinct subsets of human NK cells (referred to as CD56 bright and CD56 dim cells) and they observed that th...

NJIT Presidential Award winner takes stem cell research another step

...s also led to two major stem-cell discoveries: One showing that stem cells, when mixed with biomaterials known as scaffolds, can help regenerate bone growth; and another proving that stem cells taken from one person can be successfully implanted into another. A list of conditions for which stem-cell treatmen...

Key Trigger Of Opioid Withdrawal Symptoms Found

...brain slices. The researchers cited other studies showing that treatment with opioids also altered levels of the transporter for the neurotransmitter glutamate, "suggesting that neurotransmitter transporters may prove to be useful targets for management of opioid dependence," they wrote. The researchers als...

Gene therapy for Parkinson's disease moves forward in animals

...ted since trials in humans ended last year without showing clinical improvements. Amgen, the world's largest... insight into how to protect neural cells. This is showing us a new way to approach the problem." Parkinson's disease is caused by the death of brain cells th...

Programmable cells: Engineer turns bacteria into living computers

...iques to a large population of cells. "Here we're showing an integrated package where the cells have an ability to send messages and other cells have the ability to act on these messages," said Weiss. The creation of patterns, such as the bull's-eye effect, is a key step in one of Weiss' eventual goals, wh...

Viral protein influences key cell-signaling pathway

...feration and death. The p300 gene stood out as one showing increased activity. Taken overall, the findings suggest that HTLV-1 p12 protein influences the genetic activity of infected T cells to stimulate their proliferation and promote efficient viral infection. ...

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