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Rare cell prevents rampant brain activity

...vented from becoming over-activated. Their results show that a rarer cell type that links collections of pyramid cells ?called a Martinotti cell ?acts as a kind of safety device. When a Martinotti cell receives signals above a certain frequency, it responds by sending back inhibitory signals that moderate...

Researchers find link between food odors and lifespan in fruit flies

...ion of more food caused, but significant enough to show that food odors have a modulating effect on lifesp...ion of more food caused, but significant enough to show that food odors have a modulating effect on lifespan. The researchers also studied genetically al...

Study examines genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease

... 4,000 volunteers. Several genes were found to show evidence of contributing to Alzheimer?disease, the most interesting gene being ‘GALP?which could affect the development of tangles within brain cells, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Professor Julie Williams, School of Medicine, who leads this ...

Male owls pitch their hoots to advertise body weight to competitors

...on of approaches and vocal responses). The results show that male owls respond more strongly to the high-pitched calls that simulate lighter individuals, confirming that territorial males attend to pitch information advertising body weight in the calls of their competitors. The authors also found that the...

Noise echoes in cell communications

... how this simple form of communication works might show how to disrupt it, and the resulting infection. The team will next apply their idea to the nervous system, where the cell's entire job is to communicate. Published in top journals on theoretical biology, this collaborative research between biol...

Out-of-body experiences may be caused by arousal system disturbances in brain

...e and arousal." The results are intriguing, and show that some people's brains already may be predispos...ysis combined with an out-of-body experience could show many of the same prominent features of a near death experience. Near death experiences are responses...

Transfusion expert urges wider use of filtered blood

...duction, argues that several cost-benefit analyses show that an upfront increase of $25 to $35 for each unit of filtered blood is offset by savings from less use of antibiotics, reduced patient time in the ICU, and shorter lengths of hospital stays overall. One study, in fact, estimated that the savings i...

A 'traffic light' for neurons means 'go' for improving brain research

... scholar Li-Ping Wang. If use of the technique can show that altered activity in a particular kind of neuron underlies symptoms, for example, this insight will allow development of targeted genetic or pharmaceutical treatments to fix those neurons. Conceivably, direct control of neuronal activity with lig...

Gene tests and brain imaging reveal early dementia

...eimer's. In her study, Johanna Lind was able to show that some of the people in this risk group had reduced parietal lobe activity, detectable using an MR camera, and that these same people were the ones who went on to suffer memory deterioration two to three years later. "It's surprisingly difficu...

In obesity, brain becomes 'unaware' of fat

...lished by Cell Press. These findings in obese mice show that a sensor in the brain that normally detects a...c hormone resistance.? Cowley’s group set out to show exactly where that breakdown occurs. The researchers fed mice a high-fat diet for 20 weeks, a long t...

Study shows isolation of stem cells may lead to a treatment for hearing loss

...ng our younger generation though the effects won’t show until it is too late to treat. In addition to loud noise, certain cancer drugs or genetic factors can cause hearing loss in humans due to loss or faulty development of the sensory ‘microphones?(hair cells) inside the ear ?the cochlea. Lost hair cell...

Male-killing bacteria makes female butterflies more promiscuous

...mes more sexually rampant. Males on the other hand show signs of fatigue and put less effort into mating. In some populations of tropical butterfly the entire mating system is determined by a group of bacteria known as Wolbachia, according to the study, published in the journal ‘Current Biology'. D...

Despite their heft, many dinosaurs had surprisingly tiny genomes

...living species, Organ and Edwards are the first to show that the same applies to the bone cells called osteocytes. These cells reside in individual lacunae, small pockets inside bone tissue. This uniquely durable cellular housing allowed the scientists to look back in time at the size of 31 extinct spe...

Researchers learn what sparks plant growth

...g and restricting growth. In addition, our studies show that the cells in the epidermis "talk" to the cell...teroid hormones is the epidermis. Our results also show that these hormones act locally. As similar studies are done for other plant hormones and in other o...

Power-boosting signal in muscle declines with age

...s, even lean and healthy people in their seventies show a higher incidence of fat buildup in their muscle and livers and a deficiency in mitochondrial function, Shulman explained. These metabolic shifts have been implicated in the increased prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes that occurs ...

Imaging pinpoints brain regions that 'see the future'

...uis have used advanced brain imaging techniques to show that remembering the past and envisioning the future may go hand-in-hand, with each process sparking strikingly similar patterns of activity within precisely the same broad network of brain regions. "In our daily lives, we probably spend more time...

RNA splicing factor implicated in ovarian tumor cell growth

... Beck and research assistant professor Xiaolong He show that knocking down PTB expression with small, interfering RNA "substantially impairs ovarian tumor cell growth, colony formation and invasiveness." The research has been published in the online version of the journal Oncogene; it will appear in an...

Tracking sperm whales and jumbo squid

...ccording to nocturnal tagging data. "These data show that sperm whales don’t change their feeding behavior, day or night," Davis explained. "Instead, they keep going down to about 1,300 feet, whether squid are there or not. Perhaps it’s the only way they can catch them, but no one has ever seen a sperm...

Woman's Day and For Womens of Science

...es presented in the five supporting papers clearly show that effective national and international policies are needed to combat this global problem." Published by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Ambio ( www.ambio.kva.se ) is widely recognized as an important international forum for debate on scien...

'Marathon mice' elucidate little-known muscle type

...ouse model very enriched in IIX fibers. These mice show a greatly increased capacity to sustain physical activity." Skeletal muscle converts chemical energy into motion and force, ranging from rapid and sudden bursts of intense activity to continuous low-intensity work, the researchers said. At one fun...

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