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Tag: "shapes" at biology news

Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

...rgy of curved fusion intermediates. These fleeting shapes arise and disappear as HIV enters a T cell. Normally, a cell membrane resists bending. Scientists can quantify the energy needed to overcome this resistance. The Carnegie Mellon team found that FP-23 reduces the energy required to penetrate an artif...

Researchers demonstrate way to control tree height

... in between. Other changes can also affect foliage shapes or color in very attractive ways, and some might have value in cleaning up environmental pollution. In their studies, OSU scientists were able to create young poplar trees, which grow rapidly and can reach a mature height of 150 feet or more, that...

Scientists identify prion's infectious secret

...es, and they need to fold into complex and precise shapes to do their jobs. Prions are proteins that start out normally, but then at some point misfold—rather like an origami swan that comes out looking and acting instead like a vulture. But prions have another characteristic that enables them to wreak h...

Decoding protein structures helps illuminate cause of diabetes

...h to catch moving proteins in mid-fold and see the shapes of intermediate steps. As described in this week's online issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the first applications of the technique offer a glimpse into the contorted form of a human protein that is implicated in type II ...

MIT's ocean model captures diversity of underwater forests

...s new type of model to look in more detail at what shapes the habitats of the phytoplankton and to link this to other, larger scientific issues about oceans, the plants and creatures living in them and global climate. "This is just the beginning," said Chisholm. "Now we can begin to ask the model quest...

Gut research yields new anti-cancer approach

...at renders Taxol useless when binding sites change shapes thanks to ongoing genetic mutations. With standard anti-microtubule not an option for colorectal cancer, current chemotherapy regimens feature 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in combination with other chemotherapy drugs (oxaliplatin, irinotecan) and antib...

Common gene version optimizes thinking -- but with a possible downside

...f the population. "We have found that DARPP-32 shapes and controls a circuit coursing between the human striatum and prefrontal cortex that affects key brain functions implicated in schizophrenia, such as motivation, working memory and reward related learning," explained Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, M.D. ...

University of Alberta researchers unravel intricate animal patterns

...mo and other intricate designs. While the detailed shapes might be a bit outlandish for fish to form, the premise isn’t far off. But how does a school of fish or a flock of birds know how to move from one configuration to another and then reorganize as a unit, without knowing what the entire group is doing?...

Ancient amphibians evolved a bite before migrating to dry land

...5 million years ago, and their fish ancestors. The shapes of the junctions between adjacent skull bones -- t... data obtained from living fish, we found that the shapes of sutures in the skull roof indicate whether a fish captures its prey by sucking it into the mouth ...

Scripps research study reveals structural dynamics of single prion molecules

...l different structures before forming intermediate shapes during the amyloid assembly process. The intermediate stages of the process are critically important, Deniz noted: "No single native unfolded protein is capable of initiating the amyloid cascade because of this constant shape-shifting. To start t...

Using brain scans, researchers find evidence for a two-stage model of human perceptual learning

...icated brain areas that discriminate between these shapes to categorize and "label" that information ("top-d...shape, and then, in a second stage, to learn which shapes go with which labels, allowing the brain to sort an object into different labeled "bins" when necess...

Carnegie Mellon University research shows how sensory-deprived brain compensates

...tiff hairs relay sensory input to the brain, which shapes neuronal activity. In a first, studies of this system by Carnegie Mellon scientists show just how well a mouse brain can compensate when limited to sensing the world through one whisker. Published April 4 in the Journal of Neuroscience, the results s...

Studies yield insight into the numerical brain

...linking populations of neurons sensitive to symbol shapes to preexisting neural populations holding a nonsymbolic representation of the corresponding preverbal domain (e.g., numerosity)." In the other paper in Neuron, Roi Cohen Kadosh and colleagues conducted experiments demonstrating that the two hemisph...

Why is the heart heart-shaped?

...uch as blood flow) is necessary to create the cell shapes that generate chamber curvatures. Disruption of this balance may underlie the aberrations observed in some types of heart disease. ...

Tissue engineering for craniofacial reconstruction

...gy. HIPEs can be readily molded into the irregular shapes often required in craniofacial reconstruction and cured in situ to a rigid foam. They have demonstrated that emulsion templating can be used to generate rigid, biodegradable scaffolds with interconnected pores. These scaffolds are of particular inter...

Scientists reveal structure of gateways to gene control

... packaging. "There is a certain DNA sequence that shapes the gene's architecture in the same way, producing the same structure in every gene," Pugh said. The overall sequence of DNA building blocks is different in each gene, but the underlying architecture is the same." To obtain their high-resolution ...

MIT's ocean model precisely mimics microbes' life cycles

...s new type of model to look in more detail at what shapes the habitats of the phytoplankton and to link this to other, larger scientific issues about oceans, the plants and creatures living in them and global climate. "This is just the beginning," said Chisholm. "Now we can begin to ask the model quest...

With fruit fly sex, researchers find mind-body connection

... isn't a simple two-track genetic system ?one that shapes body and one that shapes behavior. Doublesex and fruitless act together to help regulate behavior in the context of other dev...

How did bilaterally symmetric flowers evolve from radially symmetric ones?

...d de Granada, Spain) explored how different flower shapes affected plant fitness in natural populations of Erysimum mediohispanicum, a Mediterranean herb. Their findings will be published in the October issue of The American Naturalist. The researchers found that plants bearing bilaterally symmetrical flo...

Protein structure initiative launches new resources for the scientific community

...nt pipelines for determining the three-dimensional shapes of proteins, it is creating new mechanisms for sharing the resources it has developed with the scientific community. The 10-year PSI effort, which started in 2000 and is sponsored by the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of General...

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