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Tag: "shaped" at biology news

Chemists create 'Superbowl' molecule; May lead to better health

...nction to buckyballs, the experimental soccer-ball shaped molecules also known as fullerenes (C60), which also show promise for drug delivery and other useful applications. Whereas a single buckyball is designed to hold either a single atom or a hydrogen molecule, a superbowl molecule can hold large molecul...

DNA Molecules Used To Assemble Nanoparticles

...r dendrimers and knitted together, forming barbell shaped two-dendrimer complexes with folate on one end and fluorescence on the other end. Folate receptors are over-expressed on the surface of cancer cells, so these dendrimer clusters would tend to flock to the diseased cells. The other end of the complex...

Genetic defects give the immune system the green light to attack the pancreas

...s time, receptor sites on their outer membrane are shaped to dock with each invader and destroy it. “As T-cells form, it is not uncommon for a few to randomly develop with the potential ability to attack the body’s own cells,?said Dr. Holler. “That’s when a safeguard mechanism normally kicks in to eliminat...

What the eye doesn't see

...tection by birds, the predator most likely to have shaped the evolution of protective coloration in insects. Professor Innes Cuthill and his team pinned artificial 'moths' to trees in a field with a dead mealworm attached. The 'moths' were triangular pieces of waterproof card with specific patterns printed...

The genetic origins of corn on the cob

...ally believed to be a new species. Its "peculiarly shaped ear" was "laid aside as a curiosity" and the specimen was designated Zea ramosa (from the Latin ramosus, "having many branches"). Due to the alteration of a single gene, later named ramosa1, both the ear and the tassel of the plant were more highly b...

$6.5 Million Grant for Microarray Center at Yale School of Medicine

...ally believed to be a new species. Its "peculiarly shaped ear" was "laid aside as a curiosity" and the specimen was designated Zea ramosa (from the Latin ramosus, "having many branches"). Due to the alteration of a single gene, later named ramosa1, both the ear and the tassel of the plant were more highly b...

Redesigned protein accelerates blood clotting

...s on its surface pocket-like chains of amino acids shaped to hold calcium ions (calcium binding sites). When calcium bonds to it, factor VIII changes shape and becomes better able to bind factor IX. In past research, Fay's team had identified a single amino acid (out of the more than 2,300 building blocks ...

Analysis of flower genes reveals the fate of an ancient gene duplication

...orms. Very many such gene-duplication events have shaped the evolution of today's living species, but tracing the evolution of a specific single gene over millions of years of evolution--and over potentially several gene-duplication events--can pose a significant challenge. One way in which this can be ove...

Otter adaptations: How do otters remain sleek and warm

...of the less-abundant guard hairs are distinctively shaped to interlock, with wedge-shaped fins or petals fitting into wedge-shaped grooves between fins of adjacent hairs. Weisel and colleagues report their findings in the Canadian Journal of Zoology. Weisel and Research Specialist Chandrasekaran Nagaswami,...

Genome Sequence for Haemophilus Influenzae Completed

...of the less-abundant guard hairs are distinctively shaped to interlock, with wedge-shaped fins or petals fitting into wedge-shaped grooves between fins of adjacent hairs. Weisel and colleagues report their findings in the Canadian Journal of Zoology. Weisel and Research Specialist Chandrasekaran Nagaswami,...

Nanotubes inspire new technique for healing broken bones

... typical bone graft, bone or synthetic material is shaped by the surgeon to fit the affected area, according to Haddon. Pins or screws then hold the healthy bone to the implanted material. Grafts provide a framework for bones to regenerate and heal, allowing bone cells to weave into the porous structure of ...

Retina adapts to seek the unexpected, ignore the commonplace

...ed this as a form of predictive coding, a strategy shaped by the forces of evolution in adaptation to the average image structure of natural environments. "Yet animals encounter many environments with visual statistics different from this hypothetical 'average' scene," Meister says. "We have found that whe...

Researchers find Amchitka seafood safe for now

...e collaborative process that generated it and then shaped the actual work. Prior to its undertaking the study, four diverse entities (the State of Alaska, DOE, the Aleutian/Pribilof Island Association and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) had to agree on the plan developed by CRESP. And that plan specific...

A bug's life: Exceptional genomic stability yet rapid protein evolution in a carpenter ant mutualist

... 4 billion years of life on earth and have largely shaped the evolution of complex organisms." Symbiotic bacteria live in root nodules of leguminous plants, in gutless marine worms, in echinoderms such as starfishes and sea urchins, and in specialized cells of insects such as aphids and tsetse flies. Many ...

Cornell finds natural selection in humans

...l shows strong evidence that natural selection has shaped the recent evolution of our species, according to researchers from Cornell University, Celera Genomics and Celera Diagnostics. In a study published in the Oct. 20 issue of the journal Nature, Cornell scientists analyzed 11,624 genes, comparing how ...

Sickle cell disease corrected in human models using stem cell-based gene therapy

...hemoglobin and suppressed production of the sickle shaped hemoglobin typical of the disease. "Sickle cell d...l hemoglobin and suppress the generation of sickle shaped hemoglobin S. The therapeutic gene was engineered into a lentiviral vector and introduced into hemat...

Fish evolve a longer lifespan by evolving a longer reproductive period, researchers find

...aluate whether or not menopause in humans has been shaped by natural selection. Appropriate comparisons, such as those between humans and apes, would help." ...

Multiple genes permit closely related fish species to mix and match their color vision

Vision, like other biological attributes, is shaped by evolution through environmental pressures and demands, and even closely-related species that are in other ways very similar might respond to their particular environments by interpreting the visual world slightly differently, using photoreceptors ...

Fossil find: 'Godzilla' crocodile had head of a dinosaur, fins like a fish

... Ohio State University , determined that the oddly shaped fossil specimens found in Patagonia belong on the crocodile family tree. “This species was very unusual, because other marine crocodiles that were around at the same time had very delicate features ?long, skinny snouts and needle-like teeth for catc...

MIT researcher presents new view of how the cortex forms

...t extent are these areas predetermined by genes or shaped by the environment? The protomap and protocortex theories developed before 1990 claimed, respectively, that the task-specific regions of the cortex are spawned by a zone of "originator" cells; or that long nerve fibers from the thalamus, a large ovoi...

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