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Tag: "shape" at biology news

Prenatal Stress Keeps Infants, Toddlers up at Night, Study Says

...tery of just how much the prenatal environment may shape a childs health and development for years to come. The survey-based study, part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), assessed pregnant women living in Avon, England, who were due to give birth in a 21-month window. More...

Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

...to its T cell victim to facilitate a change in the shape of gp41, which in turn drives uptake of HIV RNA and proteins by the T cell. But the Carnegie Mellon work suggests that FP-23 plays another, equally important function — reducing the free energy of curved fusion intermediates. These fleeting shapes ar...

Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

...ater molecule may enable the receptor to alter its shape in counterbalance to the bending hinge, said Chen, who explained, “Think of it as a lubricant.” Previously studied “homologs” of nAChR – proteins that share its structure but not its signaling function – are entirely hydrophobic, Chen said, support...

Modeling the restless brain

... of a macaque monkey -- they demonstrated that the shape and pattern of the fluctuations are determined by the brain's wiring diagram, its neuroanatomy. Their model also can show how slow 5- to 10-second fluctuations of activity emerge naturally from much faster, chaotic neural interactions that typica...

Newly discovered antibody may be body's natural defense against Alzheimer's

...etween them. The antibodies recognize a particular shape that proteins assume only when they become these t...ibodies to recognize toxic proteins based on their shape may have important implications for immune therapy of other neurologic disorders, the researchers ex...

Researchers reveal structure of protein altered in autism

...ork suggests that genetic mutations that alter the shape or folding of adhesion proteins in the nervous system influence their interactions. This is another example of how research on basic biological questions, such as the three-dimensional structures of proteins in the brain, can yield valuable medical i...

In nature, proteins sweep up nanoparticles

...s. “The intriguing discovery that biomolecules may shape nanoparticles into larger aggregates, which reduces the nanoparticles’ mobility, could have significant implications for bioremediation.” Moreau conducted the research under the guidance of Jill Banfield, a principal investigator in the Geochemist...

Marine phytoplankton changes form to protect itself from different predators

...ght choice,” Hay said. “They were shifting to the shape that made them largely immune to whichever predator was attacking, and this shift suppressed either the feeding or growth and reproduction of the consumer to which they were responding.” The role of this phytoplankton has been controversial in the...

Surprising origin of cell's internal highways

...ll uses to move things around in order to hold its shape and divide, originated from a tiny structure near the nucleus, called the centrosome. Now, researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center reveal a surprising new origin for these cellular "highways." In the June issue of Developmental Cell, Ir...

Putting feelings into words produces therapeutic effects in the brain

...n with friends and family during these years could shape the strength of this brain region’s response, but this is not yet established, Lieberman said. One benefit of therapy may be to strengthen this brain region. Does therapy lead to physiological changes in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex" ...

Experimental gene therapy 'abolishes' arthritis pain and lessens joint damage

...e a ship coming into port. The docking changes the shape of the dock to set off chain reactions inside the cell, enabling it to respond to the signal. On nerve cells for instance, certain receptors are shaped to accept naturally occurring painkillers called opioids, which when they dock, prevent the sendin...

Technique monitors thousands of molecules simultaneously

... the key and the receptor the lock. The nature and shape of molecules that serve as keys tells about the binding requirements of the receptor. Traditionally, probing a receptor this way has been done by making a library of molecules, treating it with the receptor, washing away any excess receptor that has ...

Students invent protective pouch to enhance cell therapy

...nitinol, a metal that snaps back into its original shape after being compressed for insertion. The inner stent matches the interior diameter of the vein. When all of the pieces are inserted, the nylon mesh is held snugly against the inner stent. A gap forms between the mesh and the outer stent, allowing bl...

New technique will produce a better chromosome map

... bands of fruit fly polytene chromosomes, with the shape and location of these structures only vaguely deli...er algorithms can accurately calculate the number, shape and location of the chromosome bands. "Two researchers might see the same image differently," sai...

Automatic identification of protein's critical features from the structure

...ntify the critical elements of proteins from their shape exclusively....

Tissue engineered scaffolding allows reproduction of cartilage tissue

...ble for the engineering of cartilage tissue as the shape and porosity can be altered to suit the type of tissue required." ...

Magnetic computer sensors may help study biomolecules

...nal forces strong enough to alter the structure or shape of the biomolecules. The NIST group is now working on a microfluidic chip that will accomplish this electronically, which would be a significant milestone for applications. Parallel processing of single biomolecules would be a significant advance...

Intelligent materials to regenerate bone tissue

... of that system. Also necessary are size and shape characteristics, as well as mechanical functions appropriate to healthy bones. The specific tasks of the project focus on putting the finishing touches to the intelligent material, based on nanoparticles and of a biodegradable nature. Also to be d...

Discovery of 'master switch' for the communication process between chloroplast and nuclei of plants

...one particular route. "Now we are in much better shape in solving the question of generating plants that can use marginal water, or marginal soil, and do so in a way that the plant won’t completely suppress its normal metabolisms and activate all of its stress metabolisms when faced with a lot of stress....

Genetic fingerprints identify brain tumors' origins

...il we consider them in the context of factors that shape the development and specialization of different brain regions." ...

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