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Tag: "senses" at biology news

Genome of deadly amoeba shows surprising complexity, evidence of lateral gene transfer

... to be one of the mechanisms by which the parasite senses the presence of its human host and translates environmental cues into signaling events, which are processed by the parasite. Another unusual feature of the genome is the presence of an unprecedented number of tRNA (transfer RNA) genes, which constit...

Scientists journey to southern Africa to unravel the secret world of elephant communication

...less seems to enable elephants to focus their keen senses of smell and hearing on unfamiliar noises and odors in the air. But O'Connell-Rodwell believes they could be responding to tactile sensations as well. "Bulls often lay their trunk on the ground when freezing," she observes. "We think they may be usi...

Unchecked DNA replication drives earliest steps toward cancer

...rted by the same Wistar group in Nature last year, senses the DNA breaks caused by replication stress and activates the p53 pathway. That pathway shuts down the replication process, thus limiting further DNA damage. In some circumstances, p53 may even force the cell into apoptosis, or programmed death, as a...

Molecular thermometers on skin cells detect heat and camphor

... Touch is perhaps the most fundamental of our five senses because it works through our largest organ, the skin. Through the skin we can detect temperature, texture, and understand both pleasure and pain. A few years ago, the Scripps Research and GNF team, which was led by Scripps Research Assistant Profess...

To Stop Evolution: New Way Of Fighting Antibiotic Resistance Demonstrated By Scripps Scientists

...ress response -- a survival mechanism. If the cell senses damage, and if the damage persists beyond its ability to repair it, the cell will turn on its mutation machinery and open the floodgates for evolution. Take the bacterium Escherichia coli for instance. When E. coli cells are subjected to damage, the...

Alcohol consumption disrupts breastfeeding hormones

...ading research center focused on understanding the senses of smell, taste and chemical irritation: how they function and affect our lives, from before birth through old age. Using a multidisciplinary approach, scientists collaborate in the areas of: sensation and perception, neuroscience and molecular biolo...

New understanding of cell movement may yield ways to brake cancer's spread

... study has identified a fragment of a protein that senses chemicals that induce a cell to move into the righ...ght direction. The PIP3-binding portion of DOCK180 senses the gradient, and DOCK180 starts accumulating at the leading edge of the cell. Along with it, DOCK18...

Cancer related gene p53 not regulated as indicated by previous tissue culture research

... at very low levels in the cell. But when the cell senses that its DNA has been damaged, it slows down the degradation of p53, so that p53 protein levels can rise and initiate protective measures. When higher than normal levels of p53 tumor suppressor exist, there is enough p53 to bind to many regulatory si...

Excess liver gene protects against high-fat diet

A gene that senses fat in the liver can modulate the consequences of eating a high-fat, Western diet, new research published in the May issue of Cell Metabolism reveals. Mice with an excess of liver X receptor (LXRa), when fed a diet high in fat, remained free from th...

Evolution of taste receptor may have shaped human sensitivity to toxic compounds

...Animals rely on chemical perception, including the senses of taste and smell, for protection against the harmful compounds found in nature. It is widely believed that behavioral and dietary choices may have reduced the importance of such chemical perception in higher primates, and particularly in humans. I...

To translate touch, the brain can quickly rearrange its sense of the body

...nse of touch. These links between different bodily senses show that the brain constantly updates its internal map, and they shed light on the dynamic and flexible nature of the body map that is used to interpret each new perception. de Vignemont et al.: "Bodily illusions modulate tactile perception." Publi...

Bees, Brains and Addiction

...le for deciding if the information coming from the senses predicts the sugar reward and signaling to the muscles to take the appropriate action to receive the reward. Computer models of how a bee assimilates and responds to information about a reward can be then applied to studies of how humans make decisi...

Life-extending protein keeps blood sugar in check

...c b cells have a highly coordinated mechanism that senses rises in blood glucose and converts that information into signals that increase the secretion of insulin, Imai explained. Insulin produced by the pancreas allows cells to take up glucose from the bloodstream and burn it for energy. A failure to make ...

Sea Ice May Be on Increase in the Antarctic

...c b cells have a highly coordinated mechanism that senses rises in blood glucose and converts that information into signals that increase the secretion of insulin, Imai explained. Insulin produced by the pancreas allows cells to take up glucose from the bloodstream and burn it for energy. A failure to make ...

Biotechnology's newest chemical tool

...type integrates the two types of human senses. One senses where parts of the body are relative to other parts, whether our fingers are open or closed, for example. The other relates to taste, touch, sound, hearing and sight that tell us about the external world. CYBERHAND includes sensors for tension, force...

Researchers find gland that tells fruit flies when to stop growing

...age. The gland then sends hormonal signals when it senses the fly has reached a size appropriate to enter adulthood. The scientists found they could use the pathway that sends insulin to a fly's cells to genetically manipulate the size of the prothoracic gland, part of a more complex structure called the r...

Retinal scans eyed for New Mexico show cattle

...s face, is held to each animal's eye. The scanner senses when the eye is open, automatically makes an image, and downloads the data to a computer database. In addition to the retinal image, the device records the date, time and a global positioning satellite coordinate of the location. "It's as simple as ...

Student scientists create living bacterial photographs

...t receptor up to a sensor in E. coli that normally senses salt concentration. Instead of sensing salt, the bacteria could sense light. The light receptor was then connected to a system in the bacteria that makes pigments. When light strikes the new receptor, it turns off a gene that ultimately controls the...

New study examines how sense of smell affects mating and aggression in mice

...as the menstrual cycle." Stimulation of the other senses also has a direct effect on behavior, he adds. "When you touch a hot pan, you immediately draw your hand away. Or, if you place your finger in an infant's palm, the baby will grasp it instinctively." The current research findings might also be relev...

Scientists map one of biology's critical light-sensing structures

...ding the "nuts and bolts" of how the photoreceptor senses light and triggers a series of downstream events that control growth and development, according to Katrina Forest, the other senior member of the team and a UW-Madison professor of bacteriology. "There were some surprises," says Forest of the ribbon-...

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