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Tag: "roles" at biology news

Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

...ures called liposomes. FP-23 likely plays several roles in viral fusion, according to the researchers. One role already suspected is that FP-23 attaches to its T cell victim to facilitate a change in the shape of gp41, which in turn drives uptake of HIV RNA and proteins by the T cell. But the Carnegie Mel...

Stroke study sheds light on left-right brain divide

...s has furthered our understanding of the different roles of the left and right sides of our brains. A study led by the University of Exeter has highlighted differences in the ability of people to perform basic tasks, depending on whether the left or right sides of their brains have been damaged by a stroke...

ASU research shows connection between testosterone, dietary antioxidants and bird coloration

...stralia. Carotenoids are known to play several key roles in birds and fish, including contributing to their bright colors, which acts as a signal to attract potential mates. They also act as an antioxidant in the body, which improves immune system function. “Researchers in animal behavior often study w...

Puzzling plankton yield secrets to role in evolution/global photosynthesis

...component of the plankton, nevertheless play major roles in oceanic biomass production. "With even more ...igoriev. "This will also enable us to predict the roles of these organisms in contributing to primary marine productivity." ...

Scientists identify prion's infectious secret

...covered non-pathogenic prions that play beneficial roles in biology, and prions even may act as essential elements in learning and memory. But although prions have received a great deal of scrutiny, scientists still don’t understand many of the most fundamental mechanisms of how prions form, replicate a...

World's leading scientists announce creation of 'Encyclopedia of Life'

...h spans the globe, and whose members will play key roles in realizing this immense project. An international advisory board of distinguished individuals will also help guide the Encyclopedia. The effort is spurred by a $10 million grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and $2.5 mi...

Dinosaur hearing, listening to muscle noise, quieter cubicles

...nts is important for understanding their important roles in the marine ecosystem. To increase opportunities for observing the whales, Kelly Newman ( k.newman@sfos.uaf.edu ) and Alan Springer of the University of Alaska deployed an autonomous recording unit to listen for them continuously off shore of a fu...

NIDA study identifies genes that might help some people abstain from smoking

...genes that we had previously identified as playing roles in dependence to other drugs also contribute to nicotine dependence.? Genes that harbor variants that contribute to both success in quitting smoking and in vulnerability to become dependent on multiple substances include cadherin 13 (a molecule inv...

Fish extinctions alter critical nutrients in water, study shows

... it targets important fish species that play major roles in recycling nutrients. In fact, 20 percent of fis... Zaire, Zambia and Burundi, also shed light on the roles that surviving species might play in replacing the lost nutrients. In both ecosystems studied, when ...

Glucose triggers brain cell death in rats after hypoglycemic coma

...nt research, Swanson is investigating the possible roles of glucose and NADPH oxidase as agents of oxidative stress in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. "So far, the results are very promising," he says. ...

Gene found for rare disorder may reveal new pathway in mental retardation

... classical cases of CdLS. The genes play important roles in early development, and when mutated, cause brain abnormalities. "Our work suggests that a subset of patients with mental retardation may have mutations in these genes, without showing the broader range of symptoms identified in diseases such as...

Major gene study uncovers secrets of leukemia

...ions were also found in other genes with important roles in B-cell differentiation including "EBF1" and "Ikaros." "Although the identification of such a high frequency of mutations in this pathway was surprising, it is important to note that the approach used provides a lower limit of the true frequenc...

Type of stem cell found to reside in transplanted lungs

...ine and senior author on this study. "The specific roles of these cells in chronic lung diseases are yet to be fully defined, but will be an active area of research in years to come." ...

How appetite-stimulating brain cells work overtime during fasting

...added. Thyroid hormones are known to play major roles during development as well as in adulthood, the researchers said. In adults, the thyroid gland is essential to regulating metabolism. Previous studies had also established a key physiological role for the active thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3)...

Hybrid molecule causes cancer cells to self-destruct

... another sugar known as sialic acid that plays key roles in cancer biology, while butyrate orchestrates the expression of genes responsible for halting the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells. Although the study of the exact molecular mechanism is in its early stages, the researchers believe the separa...

Bisexual fruit flies show new role for neurochemical

...xCT transport proteins play important, unsuspected roles in brain function," Featherstone said. "We think we'll be able to learn a lot about perception and development from figuring out exactly what's happening in these flies. "It's amazing how many biomedical breakthroughs have come from crazy direction...

New protein inhibitor impedes growth of cancerous cells

...all-molecule inhibitor of a protein that plays key roles in the control of cell division, and they show tha...n as kinases, is known to play especially critical roles in the division of healthy cells, and appears to also be important for cell division in cancer cells...

Scientists use nanoparticle to discover disease-causing proteins

... to determine the activities of proteins that play roles in specific diseases. Proteins carry genetic messages throughout the cell causing biochemical changes that can determine whether a cell behaves normally or abnormally. Proteins also are important in directing immune responses. The Purdue scientist...

Researcher to study astronaut bone loss for space biology agency

...1; and beta-3 integrin, a protein that among other roles promotes the function of IGF-1 receptor. Long's and Bikle's hypothesis is that during prolonged weightlessness, beta-3 integrin production decreases, which in turn diminishes the function of IGF-1 receptor in bone. Without its receptor, IGF-1 has...

Elucidation of the genome for diabetics with DNA chips

...t least four genes encoding proteins playing major roles in the development of the pancreas and of insulin-producing cells: TCF7L2, HHEX, EXT2 and SLC30A8. TCF7L2 and HHEX encode transcription factors (molecules regulating the activity of other genes) controlling the Wnt signalling pathway essential fo...

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