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Tag: "retroviruses" at biology news

How sneaky HIV escapes cells

..., counter the prevailing belief that HIV and other retroviruses can only leave and enter cells by virus-specific m...nisms. “It appears that cells make HIV and other retroviruses by a naturally occurring export mechanism,” says Stephen Gould, Ph.D., Professor of Biological Chemi...

Ancient retrovirus sheds light on modern pandemic

...ERV1 and humans have none." It is believed that retroviruses have been entering the genome for many millions of...ot seem to be good at defending against any of the retroviruses that currently infect humans, such as HIV-1," Emerman said. "In the end, this drove human evolution ...

Researchers discover that sheep need retroviruses for reproduction

...has discovered that naturally occurring endogenous retroviruses are required for pregnancy in sheep. In particu...ss of endogenous retroviruses, known as endogenous retroviruses related to Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus or enJSRVs, are critical during the early phase of pregnancy ...

Researchers discover key mechanism by which lethal viruses Ebola and Marburg cause disease

...bola and Marburg viruses that resemble proteins in retroviruses known to suppress the immune system. By targeting these amino acids, new drugs could disrupt the ability of these viruses to shut down immune systems and make them vulnerable to the body's natural defenses. "This brilliant study shows that many ...

Sunflower speciation highlights roles for transposable elements in evolution

...their behavior in maize, are related to infectious retroviruses and are capable of multiplying and inserting themselves at different points throughout a host genome. They are found in virtually all eukaryotic genomes. The new findings not only add an interesting twist to the origin of new sunflower species th...

Jumping gene could provide non-viral alternative for gene therapy

...ciences Early Edition. "You can use these wherever retroviruses have been used." In addition to piggyBac, resear...duce and probably safer than viruses. For example, retroviruses use RNA to make DNA, an error-prone process that must occur before integration, Dr. Kaminski says. A...

Scientists resuscitate a 5 million-year-old retrovirus

...s propagation, as has been repeatedly observed for retroviruses from experimental animals. "Phoenix has produce... work will be helpful in tracking down the role of retroviruses in these human diseases." ...

Scientists discover new regulating mechanism in cells

... a new mechanism used by cells ?and manipulated by retroviruses ?to control the making of certain essential proteins, including some involved in cancer. The mechanism uses an enzyme called RNA helicase A (RHA), which is made by the cell. The study by researchers with The Ohio State University Comprehensive Ca...

A clue from macaques yields evidence for impaired retroviral defense genes in humans

...covered arm of the body's defense against invading retroviruses such as HIV. One of the key components of this "intrinsic immunity" is encoded by the TRIM5 gene. This gene was discovered because the version of TRIM5 possessed by rhesus macaques allows them to resist HIV infection, whereas the human version does...

'Virus chip' detects new virus in prostate tumors

...ent identical to a class of known endogenous mouse retroviruses -- residents of the mouse genome. How the virus originally infected humans is unknown, Ganem says, though it was probably acquired from contact with rodents. It is extremely unlikely, however, that contact with mice was responsible for the virus dete...

Breakthrough for stem cell research

...ose animal products have the potential to transmit retroviruses in humans, which could have disastrous consequences." Human embryonic stem cell lines are derived from specialized cells from embryos donated by infertile couples that specifically consented for their excess embryos to be used in stem cell research...

Performing monkeys in Asia carry viruses that could jump species to humans

...rforming monkeys in Indonesia are carrying several retroviruses that are capable of infecting people, according to a new study led by University of Washington researchers. The results indicate that contact with performing monkeys, which is common in many Asian countries, could represent a little-known path for vi...

Stolen gene allows insect virus to enter cells

...ains to be answered. At some point, perhaps after retroviruses had sprinkled host genomes with multiple copies of the f gene, a baculovirus picked it up through recombination. Unlike retroviruses, baculoviruses don't insert their genes into their hosts' genomes. They do steal genes, however, by mixing host DNA w...

Molecular mechanism of feather formation found

...est the activator-inhibitor model, Harris injected retroviruses to force the expression of either Shh or Bmp2 into the skin of six-day-old chick embryos. The virus infected only small patches of cells and allowed Harris to locally examine the effects of the treatment on barb patterning during feather development....

Chimp genome reveals a retroviral invasion

...ed into a new spot in the genome. Human endogenous retroviruses make up one class of these retroelements. Retrovir...nd gets passed on to offspring. Because endogenous retroviruses can alter gene function and genome structure, they can influence the evolution of their host species...

Retrovirus struck ancestors of chimpanzees and gorillas millions of years ago, but did not affect ancestral humans

...ely infected ape species in the past. "The reason retroviruses are so deadly, at the genetic level, is that they ...reatest impact. Other studies have shown that most retroviruses typically land near or within genes. This difference may mean the animals that had the virus taken u...

Science study holds implications for gene therapy and stem cell biology

...s, is one of a family of studies on using disabled retroviruses as gene transfer vectors. To date, disabled retroviruses have mostly been tested experimentally in laboratory settings but are also being tested in well-cont...

Study reveals candidate targets for anti-retroviral therapeutics

...le in yeast are similar to the proteins encoded by retroviruses and their life cycles in animal cells. Scientists ...ed organism are a good model for understanding how retroviruses such as HIV interact with their hosts. Yeast has previously been used as a model to help scientists ...

An HIV Protein Plays a Surprising Role in Gene Activation

...to the business of regulating gene expression, and retroviruses like HIV have evolved myriad ways of redirecting that machinery to their own benefit. Humans and other eukaryotes have three types of RNA polymerases, each charged with transcribing different types of genetic elements. RNA polymerase II transcribes ...

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