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Tag: "responsible" at biology news

Whitefly spreads emerging plant viruses

A tiny whitefly is responsible for spreading a group of plant viruses that cause devastating disease on food, fiber, and ornamental crops, say plant pathologists with The American Phytopathological Society (APS). According to Judith Brown, professor of plant sciences at the Univ...

Gene hunters close in on Lou Gehrig’s disease

...se. “Although we haven’t located the exact gene responsible for sporadic ALS, our results seriously narrow the...isease. Genes behind inherited forms of ALS -- responsible for about only 5 percent of all cases -- were discovered a decade ago, but no genetic roots have pre...

Bacteria from patient's dental plaque causes ventilator-associated pneumonia

...d on three strains of suspected pathogens that are responsible for most hospital-acquired pneumonia: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Samples of plaque from teeth and of secretions from the trachea were obtained from ICU patients on the day of admission and every third day the...

Moonlighting enzyme linked to neurodegenerative disease

... enzyme, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD), are responsible for decreasing the enzyme's primary role as a meta...and in doing so, we decided to go after the enzyme responsible for the degradation thinking it probably might play an important role in the regulation of frataxin ...

Cracking open the black box of autoimmune disease

...not known precisely where the molecular breakdowns responsible for such failures occur. Now, a team of scientists from the Whitehead Institute and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have identified a key set of genes that lie at the core of autoimmune disease, findings that may help scientists develop new methods ...

MicroRNAs can be tumor suppressors

... in causing, and perhaps curing, a disease that is responsible for the vast majority of hysterectomies in the Western world." Studying chromosomal HMGA2 translocations that are associated with human tumors, the researchers found that, in normal cells, a microRNA called let-7 binds to the 3?end of the HMGA2 mR...

Killing the messenger RNA -- But which one?

...ralizing another form of RNA called messenger RNA, responsible for conveying the information from genes to the cellular machinery that uses that information to create proteins, the building blocks of the body. Several hundred species of microRNAs have been identified to date, and increasingly they are being seen...

Protein may hold key to decreasing organ dysfunction rates in heart transplants

...rotein known as Lipocalin-2 (Lcn-2) as potentially responsible for regulating the body's inflammatory response du...d hearts in mice, and suggests that the protein is responsible for attracting further inflammatory response. Inflammation was found to decrease dramatically in mic...

Common mechanisms for viral DNA replication

...s 40 (SV40), the large T-antigen protein (T-ag) is responsible for recognizing DNA sequences required to start replication, called the origin of replication. SV40 T-ag can also cause DNA to melt or unwind. In a new study published online in the open access journal PLoS Biology, Gretchen Meinke, Andrew Bohm, and ...

How fish conquered the ocean

...gs since they lack the adult organs and mechanisms responsible for coping with these problems. For years we studied various aspects of the physiological adaptations of the fish egg to the marine environment. It is most satisfying that Dr. Finn has been able to tie the threads together in molecular and evolutiona...

Chemicals in brown algae may protect against skin cancer

...adiation. UVB radiation in sunlight is thought responsible for 90 percent of the estimated 1.3 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer diagnosed in the United States annually. Researchers applied the BAPs to the skin of hairless mice and fed it to the animals in their diet. In both cases, the substance...

Volcanic eruptions, ancient global warming linked

...nts in basins along the east Greenland margin were responsible for the global warming and changes in ocean chemistry. The breakthrough came from being able to find a marker ?the ash eruption ?that was distributed all over the North Atlantic, and showed up in the marine record as well, Duncan said. The volc...

Ring-around-the-cell

...h as osteoporosis, an imbalance in this process is responsible for the characteristic bone loss. New research at the Weizmann Institute of Science, which recently appeared in the online journal PLoS ONE, has revealed in unprecedented detail how the roving cells whose job is to digest bone seal off their work are...

New test helps identify hepatitis C patients at high risk of developing cirrhosis

...ed a liver transplant in the United States and is responsible for between 8,000 and 10,000 U.S. deaths annually. But in the majority of people chronically infected with hepatitis C, the virus causes either no symptoms or vague, nonspecific ones. In around one-third of people chronically infected with the v...

MIT's ocean model precisely mimics microbes' life cycles

...l processes. This will help guide decisions about responsible use of the oceans in this era of global change." ...

Groundbreaking Canadian asthma study

...reduces the amount of airway smooth muscle that is responsible for the constriction of airways in asthma patients. Using a flexible bronchoscope through the nose or the mouth, a routine procedure. physicians treat small to medium sized airways with Bronchial Thermoplasty (BT). The BT device generates radio freq...

Scientists identify a candidate gene for osteoporosis

... region on mouse chromosome 1 as containing a gene responsible for BMD regulation. In the current project, Mohan... did not pinpoint the specific alteration that was responsible for the BMD differences between the two strains of mice. However, Mohan and his colleagues predict ...

Reversing cancer cells to normal cells

...l is an embryonic factor (also called a morphogen) responsible for maintaining the pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells: their ability to develop or "morph" into one of a variety of body cells. When aggressive melanoma and other tumor cells (recent findings also report Nodal expression in breast cancer an...

When smell cells fail they call in stem cell reserves

...at can repair the most severe damage to the nerves responsible for our sense of smell. These reservists normally lie around and do nothing, but when neighboring cells die, the scientists say, the stem cells jump into action. A report on the discovery will appear online next week in Nature Neuroscience. “These ...

Brain works more chaotically than previously thought

..., or soma, where they are processed. The component responsible for "distributing" the result is the axon. Axons are long cable-like projections of the cell along which the electrical signals pass until they meet, at a synapse, the dendritic arm of another neuron. The synapse presents an insurmountable barrier to...

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