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Tag: "responsible" at biology news

The quest for an effective HIV vaccine presents new possibilities, challenges

...d that CD8+ T cells--so-called killer T-cells--are responsible for this reduction in HIV levels; however, their ability to continue to suppress the virus declines over time as the virus mutates and the immune system is progressively destroyed. The infection of CD4+ T cells occurs very early in HIV disease, an...

Implanting dopamine generators in brain cells obtains improvement in Parkinson's in monkeys

... in the number of dopaminergic cells appears to be responsible for the improvement of the illness in animals studied by the Navarra University Hospital and CIMA researchers, given that, this was not observed in those individuals receiving injections of saline serum instead of the cellular aggregates. The fact...

Do fruit flies have free will?

...tics to localize and understand the brain circuits responsible for the spontaneous behavior. This step could lead directly to the development of robots with the capacity for spontaneous nonrandom behavior and may help combating disorders leading to compromised spontaneous behavioral variability in humans such as...

Newly identified mechanism for silencing genes points to possible anti-cancer strategies

... mechanism, one that blocks the cellular machinery responsible for translating messenger RNA into proteins at spe...ional ribosomes. Ribosomes are cellular organelles responsible for translating messenger RNA into protein. Closer investigation showed that the new complex also in...

Biodegradable microspheres deliver time release vaccines, stimulate different immune response

...ospheres (without ovalbumin). Dendritic cells are responsible for initiating CMIs. "We observed that the polymer microspheres were activating dendritic cells," says Wilson-Welder. The implications of these findings are two-fold, says Wilson-Welder. First, they have shown that polyanhydride microspheres...

MIT's ocean model captures diversity of underwater forests

...l processes. This will help guide decisions about responsible use of the oceans in this era of global change." ...

Genome sequencing reveals key to viable ethanol production

...ester have for the first time identified how genes responsible for biomass breakdown are turned on in a microorganism that produces valuable ethanol from materials like grass and cornstalks. Waste products such as grass clippings and wood chips—once thought too difficult to turn into ethanol—may soon be fodder ...

Scientists see DNA get 'sunburned' for the first time

...see any evidence that long-lived energy states are responsible for damage. Now it seems more likely that short-lived states cause the most common chemical damage to DNA." That damage consists of two tiny molecular bonds that form where they shouldn't -- between two thymine bases stacked together among the bil...

Cloning the smell of the seaside

... saltmarsh to identify and extract the single gene responsible for the emission of the strong-smelling gas, dimet... have known about DMS for many years but the genes responsible for its production have never before been identified. The new findings will be published in the jour...

Super-fermenting fungus genome sequenced

...he identification of numerous genes in P. stipitis responsible for its fermenting and cellulose-bioconverting prowess, and an analysis of these metabolic pathways, is featured in the March 4 advanced online publication of Nature Biotechnology. P. stipitis is the most proficient microbial fermenter in nature of...

Scientists identify pancreatic cancer stem cells

.... Their work indicates that these cells are likely responsible for the aggressive tumor growth, progression, and .... Thus, they remain after tumors shrink and may be responsible for cancer recurrence and metastasis. This study confirms at least one of those concepts, the res...

Stanford-led study closes in on genes that may predispose some people to severe depression

...in twins and families. No single gene is thought responsible for determining the risk for developing depression. Instead, multiple genes are probably interacting to create what amounts to a genetic baseline level of risk. On top of that baseline, environmental factors are likely mixed in as well, things s...

Noise echoes in cell communications

...riation on the wavelet technique, which he says is responsible for clarifying the JPG image. The findings could have numerous applications ?most obviously in treating hearing loss by artificially increasing the amount of noise in the cochlea of the inner ear, perhaps by an implanted device. Hong, Saidel and ...

In obesity, brain becomes 'unaware' of fat

...er evidence that a suppressor called SOCS-3 may be responsible for the loss of sensitivity to the fat hormone known as leptin. Therapeutic strategies designed to inhibit SOCS-3 may therefore bypass leptin resistance in obese animals to restore energy balance, according to the researchers. In most adults, body...

Despite their heft, many dinosaurs had surprisingly tiny genomes

...the two groups' genetic material, a factor largely responsible for variation in genome size across animal species. They estimate that active repetitive DNA might have comprised an average 12 percent of the ornithischian genome but just 8.4 percent of theropod genetic constitution. The work indicates that the ...

Action video games sharpen vision 20 percent

...action games, they're changing the brain's pathway responsible for visual processing," says Bavelier. "These games push the human visual system to the limits and the brain adapts to it. That learning carries over into other activities and possibly everyday life." The improvement was seen both in the part of th...

Pitt study notes decline in male births in the US and Japan

...s, including environmental contaminants, which are responsible for this continuing health disparity.? “Given the importance of reproduction for the health of any species, the trends we observed in the U.S. and Japan merit concern,?added Dr. Davis. “In light of our findings, more detailed studies should be carr...

Imaging pinpoints brain regions that 'see the future'

... reactivation of those images from neural networks responsible for the storage and retrieval of autobiographical ...ages of him had to be derived from neural networks responsible for semantic memory ?our context-free general knowledge of the world. In fact, participants later re...

Enhancing activity of marijuana-like chemicals in brain helps treat

...pamine is depleted, it is thought that the pathway responsible for inhibiting movement becomes overly activated - leading to the difficulty of initiating motion, the hallmark of Parkinson's disease. Current treatment for Parkinson's includes drugs that stimulate or mimic dopamine. It turns out that the neu...

How appetite-stimulating brain cells work overtime during fasting

During periods of fasting, brain cells responsible for stimulating the appetite make sure that you stay hungry. Now, a new study of mice reported in the January issue of the journal Cell Metabolism, published by Cell Press, reveals the complex series of molecular events that keep those neurons active...

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