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Tag: "replaced" at biology news

Soils offer new hope as carbon sink

...because rapidly decomposing carbon forms are being replaced by stable ones in the form of agrichar." Unfortunately, agrichar is not widely available. BEST Energies Australia, a company involved with NSW DPI in the trials, has a pilot plant at Gosford which is producing minimal amounts for research purposes...

How sneaky HIV escapes cells

... longer get out of the cell. However, if they were replaced with synthetic membrane anchors and clumping domains Gag regained its ability to get out of cells in exosomes. Gould speculates that cells may have initially developed exosomes as a quality control mechanism to get rid of clumped proteins, which ...

Pesticides choke pathway for nature to produce nitrogen for crops

... reduced. If this natural fertilizer source is not replaced by increased application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer, then crop yields are reduced and/or more growing time is needed for these crops to reach the yields obtained by untreated crops. We feel that this is a previously unforeseen factor contributi...

Deconstructing brain wiring, one neuron at a time

...n that ordinarily coats rabies virus particles was replaced with its equivalent from a bird virus. This prevented the modified rabies virus from infecting mammalian neurons at all ?unless they had been engineered to express the bird virus's receptor, a bird cell surface protein known as TVA. Such neurons will...

Scientists identify molecular cause for one form of deafness

... bundles changes dramatically when normal espin is replaced with espin mutants that cause deafness," said Gerard Wong, a professor of materials science and engineering, of physics, and of bioengineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. "The interior structure of the bundles changes from a ...

Study shows isolation of stem cells may lead to a treatment for hearing loss

...side the ear ?the cochlea. Lost hair cells are not replaced and people exposed to these conditions face permanent hearing loss. Identification of the stem cells from the adult cochlea would be a major step forward to develop new therapeutic approaches to hearing loss. Members of the National Center for Regen...

Nanotextured implant materials: blending in, not fighting back

...e years, and up to 20 percent of stents need to be replaced because the artery walls thicken in and around them in a process known as restenosis. Drug-coated stents were introduced years ago as one way to combat this problem, but concerns have surfaced recently about increased clotting. Instead of using ch...

Stem cells act through multiple mechanisms to benefit mice with neurodegenerative disease

...yed by the disease. Some of the transplanted cells replaced damaged nerve cells and transmitted nerve impulses, offering the first evidence that stem cell-derived nerve cells may integrate electrically and functionally into a diseased brain. The transplanted cells also boosted the brain's supply of the enzyme...

Protein fragments sequenced in 68 million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex

... to degrade and, in the case of fossils, is slowly replaced by mineral. This substitution process was thought to be complete by one million years. "For centuries it was believed that the process of fossilization destroyed any original material, consequently no one looked carefully at really old bones," sai...

Scientists clone mice from adult skin stem cells

... procedure, Li took unfertilized mouse oocytes and replaced the nucleus of each oocyte with a nucleus from these adult skin stem cells. A main hurdle in nuclear transfer with adult cells has been its efficiency ?out of a hundred attempts, only a handful may succeed ?with reported success rates never reach...

Gene that makes people 'early to bed and early to rise' demystified

...building block normally present at position 662 is replaced by glycine, prevented a regulatory enzyme from tacking a phosphate onto the encoded protein. Now, the researchers report additional evidence that the lost "phosphorylation" prevents a cascade of chemical modifications that are normally primed by th...

Lead with a poisonous electron shield

...of the four possible calcium ions of calmodulin is replaced by lead, the lead ion remains roughly heptacoordinated, but this active center becomes distorted and inefficient; the three remaining sites get a reduced efficiency. d-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase is essential for the biosynthesis of hemoglobin...

DNA analysis reveals rapid population shift among Pleistocene cave bears

...n became disrupted around 28,000 years ago and was replaced by a new, genetically distinct cave bear group. The timing of the disruption appears to roughly coincide with the arrival of modern humans in the Ach Valley, thought to have occurred by 32,000 years ago. The researchers suggest that human influenc...

Making mice with enhanced color vision

...hat has one copy of its medium wavelength receptor replaced with the human long wavelength receptor, so both were expressed in the retina. The human receptors were biologically functional in the mice, but the real question was whether the mice could use the new visual information. To address this question...

MicroRNA helps prevent tumors

...-producing part of the Hmga2 gene is cut short and replaced with DNA from another chromosome. Biologists have mostly focused on the shortened protein as the possible reason that the cells with this DNA swap became tumors. But this DNA swap removes not only the gene's protein-producing regions but also those ...

Engineering the heart piece by piece

...new ones that can grow in place, rather than being replaced every few years. And people with clogged or weak blood vessels might get a new “natural?replacement, instead of a factory-made one. These possibilities are all within reach, and could transform the way heart care is delivered, say University of Mich...

Genomics throws species definition in question for microbes

...ways. It is unclear whether this system should be replaced or renovated," says Richard Roberts of New England Biolabs, one of the authors of the report. The report is the result of a colloquium convened by the AAM in September 2006. Participants with expertise in microbial taxonomy, systematics, ecolog...

Drug treatment improves learning in mice with Down syndrome symptoms, Stanford/Packard study shows

...ods of time as older, drug-experienced neurons are replaced by younger cells. The researchers believe that the key to the improvement lies in the fact that PTZ blocks the action of an inhibitory neurotransmitter called GABA. Normal brains maintain a precise ratio between neuronal excitation and inhibition ...

Gene key to taste bud development identified

...ch like skin cells, continually slough off and are replaced by new ones. So the new findings not only provide insights into the interactions between SOX2 and tongue stem cells during embryonic development, but also into how stem cells continue to operate in adults, the researchers said. The researchers publ...

Uncovering DNA's 'sweet' secret

... DNA in which the usual five-carbon sugar has been replaced with a six-carbon sugar. By exchanging the sugars that make up the DNA backbone, researchers can make and test plausible "alternatives" to DNA - alternatives that nature may have tried out before arriving at the final structure. These alternative s...

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