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Tag: "regulator" at biology news

Blood test may help signal tumor's remission, return in throat cancer patients

...okines is controlled by the same “master switch”—a regulator protein known as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB)—the researchers suggest that this protein may represent a new target for drug therapy. Drugs that help turn off NF-kappaB are currently being tested in clinical trials at NIH and elsewhere. The r...

Study identifies 5 genetic themes key to keeping stem cells in a primitive, flexible state

... of a gene called Oct4 considered to be the master regulator of the stem cell state. A comprehensive molecular ...sion was also correlated with the master stem cell regulator gene Oct4. They also applied very rigorous analysis methods, using data from StemBase, the largest s...

Master regulatory gene of epithelial stem cells identified

...reast, prostate, and urogenital tract. This master regulator of epithelial stem cells turns out to be the p63 gene, a close relative to the well-known tumor-suppressing p53 gene. Without p63, mutant mice run out of the regenerative epithelial stem cells. The findings also have implications for cancers of the ...

Leukemia drug turns mini-molecules up, cancer genes down

...he researchers then looked at miRNA let-7, a known regulator of the Ras oncogene, and likewise found that high levels of this miRNA were associated with low Ras activity. They established a cause and effect relationship as before, by adding additional let-7 to untreated leukemia cells. "Overall," Garzo...

In obesity, brain becomes 'unaware' of fat

...s studies have suggested that SOCS-3 is a negative regulator of leptin,?Cowley said. “As animals become bigger and fatter and leptin increases, SOCS-3 may rise to decrease the signal. It seems that in obesity, SOCS-3 might end up overriding the [leptin] signal completely.? When the amount of fat in the anima...

Scripps research study shows humans and plants share common regulatory pathway

...hypothesis, the target protein would be a negative regulator of immune responses." Future studies, Ulevitch said, will focus on the extensive literature that exists describing the R protein dependent immunity in plants to better understand human NLR pathways, especially those dependent on Nod1. ...

Power-boosting signal in muscle declines with age

...ear-old rats relative to 3-month-old rats. A chief regulator of whole-body energy balance, AMPK in skeletal muscle stimulates the oxidation of fatty acids and the production, or biogenesis, of power-producing mitochondria that burn fat and fuel cells, according to the researchers. The new findings might hel...

New player in commitment to life as a fat cell

...a transcription factor considered to be the master regulator of fat production since it is both necessary and sufficient for adipose differentiation both in vitro and in vivo, the researchers said. Treatments that inhibited XOR activity in cells blocked fat formation and PPAR-gamma activity, the researchers...

RNA splicing factor implicated in ovarian tumor cell growth

..." Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein is a key regulator of splicing, Beck said. Defects in pre-messenger RNA splicing have been shown to cause a variety of human diseases. Evidence suggests that altered splicing is associated with and possibly involved in tumor progression or metastasis. "To the best o...

Is there a pilot in the insect?

...forward speed will be reduced. Thus its optic flow regulator will constantly force it to reduce altitude so tha...ork on board the microhelicopter. The optic flow regulator helps explain how an insect manages to fly, even in unfavorable wind conditions, without measuring i...

Finnish scientists discovered a new approach to treat virus-induced lymphomas

...n targets the interaction of p53 with its negative regulator MDM2. This is based on a potent and selective small-molecule inhibitor of the p53–MDM2 interaction, the Nutlin-3a, originally discovered by Dr Lyubomir T Vassilev (Roche Research Center, Nutley, NJ., USA). Nutlin-3a has been suggested to be a poten...

Primitive yeast yields secrets of human cholesterol and drug metabolism

...our experiments suggest that Dap1 acts as a common regulator of cytochrome P450s in mammals,?says Espenshade. Because Dap1 affects one particular P450 responsible for drug metabolism, Espenshade suspects that genetic variations in the genetic blueprint coding for Dap1 may provide clues to how and why diffe...

Cracking open the black box of autoimmune disease

...T cells are themselves controlled by a master gene regulator called Foxp3. Master gene regulators bind to specific genes and control their level of activity, which in turn affects the behavior of cells. In fact, when Foxp3 stops functioning, the body can no longer produce working regulatory T cells. When this ...

'Exercise pill' switches on gene that tells cells to burn fat

...ow able to chemically switch on PPAR-d, the master regulator that controls the ability of cells to burn fat. E...overed the role of the gene for PPAR-d, the master regulator of fat metabolism. By permanently turning on this delta switch in mice through genetic engineering, ...

Single molecule extends fat mice lives by reversing gene pathways associated with disease in obese

... examined AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), a metabolic regulator that promotes insulin sensitivity and fatty acid oxidation. It's been shown in previous work that the lifespan of worms has been extended by the addition of copies the AMPK gene, and chronic activation of AMPK is seen on calorie-restricted diets. The...

Molecular atlas provides new tool for understanding estrogen-fueled breast cancer

...erated by the cells' estrogen receptor, the master regulator of cell growth in the most common form of breast cancer. The map, which includes thousands of such control regions, provides scientists with a new tool for understanding how genes are regulated, and may eventually help doctors match patients with tre...

Tearing down the fungal cell wall

...ge in the layers of the cell wall or function as a regulator of cell wall biosynthesis. Future work will focus on identifying the role of the product of the AbNPS2 gene which should allow us to get an important handle on the precise series of molecular events that give rise to these drastic effects on spore vi...

How mammals fuel milk production may have implications for cancer

...In this regard, Akt1’s ability to act as a central regulator of nutrient uptake and utilization is consistent with the frequent observation of constitutive activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway in a wide range of human cancers, including those of the breast.? Cancer cells also commonly exhibit increased rates o...

Study offers innovative profile of enzyme that aids tumor growth

...se function was previously unknown-serves as a key regulator of a lipid signaling network that contributes to cancer," said Benjamin F. Cravatt, a Scripps Research professor and a member of its Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology who led the study. "The heightened expression of KIAA1363 in several cancers in...

How blood flow dictates gene expression

...Now that Klf2 has been established as an important regulator of blood flow in live animals and is required for the development of a healthy cardiovascular system, the next step is to elucidate the role of Klf2 in normal adult blood vessels and in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. ...

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