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Tag: "puzzling" at biology news

Exploring the dark matter of the genome

... Karpen notes that one intensively studied and puzzling problem in chromosome biology will benefit enormously from the new findings: epigenetics -- the inheritance of traits and genetic information as controlled by proteins associated with the chromosomes, rather than by DNA sequence. Starting in the 1920...

Natural antibiotics yield secrets to atom-level imaging technique

...ed hundreds of AMPs in recent years, they're still puzzling over exactly how the peptides wipe out bacteria and other microbes. Unlike conventional antibiotics, which typically inhibit specific bacterial proteins, AMPs get downright physical with invaders, punching holes into their membranes. But they're sele...

Global 'sunscreen' has likely thinned, report NASA scientists

...nd 1991. The NASA study also sheds light on the puzzling observations by other scientists that the amount of sunlight reaching Earth's surface, which had been steadily declining in recent decades, suddenly started to rebound around 1990. This switch from a "global dimming" trend to a "brightening" trend ha...

Some caterpillers just don't want to grow up

...son and mature only after two years. "The question puzzling us for some time," says Prof. Jeremy Thomas, director of the CEH in Dorset, "was to understand why so many caterpillars waste one year's time by delaying their development. From all what we know, which developmental pathway a caterpillar takes is det...

Researchers discover genetic cause for word-finding disease

...e journal. "We're dealing with one of the most puzzling phenomenons in neurology," said Mesulam, director of Northwestern's Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer's Disease Center. "Here is a disease that specifically attacks the language part of the brain on the left side. What makes it so specific? How does ...

'Failed' experiment yields a biocontrol agent that doesn't trigger antibiotic resistance

...t for bacteriologist Marcin Filutowicz. As he was puzzling out why what should have been a routine procedure ...s inspiration came one morning in 1999 when he was puzzling over a failed experiment. A researcher in his lab had been trying to insert two different mutations...

Paramecia adapt their swimming to changing gravitational force

...trong. Space-based research has demonstrated many puzzling biological effects related to reduced gravity, such as changes in bone cell development and gene expression. But methods for manipulating gravity in the Earth-based laboratory have been few and troublesome, hindering further research in these areas. ...

A simple feedback resistor switch keeps latent HIV from awakening

...eir model may also provide an explanation for some puzzling observations about Tat and HIV. Tat contains at least two acetylation sites that must both be deacetylated to turn off transcription. The authors propose this requirement may avoid making the off state so easy to reach that the virus remains dormant ...

Speeding the search for elusive chromosomal errors

...curate diagnosis of congenital diseases, including puzzling disorders that lead to mental retardation. "For years, many children who have multiple congenital problems, such as developmental delays, heart defects and facial abnormalities, have gone undiagnosed because they may not have an easily recognizable ...

Discovery of agile molecular motors could aid in treating motor neuron diseases

...ses or developmental defects, so understanding the puzzling aspects of their behavior in detail is necessary for building nanotechnological machines that, for example, could replace defective motors. "The ultimate goal is to find ways to treat motor neuron disease as well as other diseases that involve cellul...

Scientists discover a genetic code for organizing DNA within the nucleus

...ed insight into another mystery that has long been puzzling molecular biologists: How do cells direct transcription factors to their intended sites on the DNA, as opposed to the many similar but functionally irrelevant sites along the genomic sequence? The short binding sites themselves do not contain enough ...

MIT sheds light on how tumor cells form

...ccurrence of mutations in aneuploid tumors. "It's puzzling that the suspected culprits - the aneuploidy-inducing checkpoint mutations - are rarely found at the scene of the crime, in the aneuploid tumors," Draviam said. That lingering question prompted Draviam and her colleagues to study how two other key m...

Researchers map out networks that determine cell fate

...rsity of Chicago. This finding sheds light on a puzzling behavior. For some differentiating stem cells, the first step leads not to a final decision but to a new choice. In response to the initial chemical signal, these cells take on the genetic signatures of two different cell types. It often requires...

ASU researchers find link between social behavior, maternal traits in bees

One of the puzzling questions in the evolution of bees is how some species developed social behaviors. Arizona State University Life Sciences associate professor Gro Amdam thinks part of the answer can be traced back to bee reproductive traits. A paper describing Amda...

Research details how a virus hijacks cell signals to cause infection

...ls. Just how the virus enters those cells has been puzzling to scientists. Dr. Bergelson previously discovered a cell receptor called the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) to which the virus attaches itself. However, the CAR remains below the surface of epithelial cells, in a seemingly inaccessible...

U-M scientists identify major psoriasis susceptibility gene

... to understand all the secrets of this complex and puzzling disease. "Access to a large, diverse pool of study subjects is vital to the success of this type of clinical research," Elder says. "We are grateful to the 5,000 people who have participated in our psoriasis study so far. It has been a collaborative...

Neuroscientists discover new cell type that may help brain maintain memories of smells

...e work of recognizing the odor begins. One of the puzzling aspects of olfaction is how our perception of an odor can evolve over multiple sniffs. Because of their unique ability to maintain their activity between sniffs, Blanes cells may provide the missing link needed to answer this critical question. Wh...

Prions rapidly 'remodel' good protein into bad, Brown study shows

... infectious agents ?the research helps explain the puzzling process of how prions multiply and spread infection. Satpute-Krishnan said the speed of protein conversion was surprising. "The prions were taking all the existing protein and refolding it immediately," she said. "It's a very, very rapid change." A...

'License to kill' enables powerful immune attack cells in mice

...ings from Yokoyama's laboratory could explain some puzzling outcomes in the clinic, including why some patients with hepatitis C infections can be cured while others have a chronic infection for the rest of their lives. "This could be an important advance both conceptually and in terms of clinical practice,"...

'Jumping genes' contribute to the uniqueness of individual brains

...cal Studies may have found one explanation for the puzzling variety in brain organization and function: mobile elements, pieces of DNA that can jump from one place in the genome to another, randomly changing the genetic information in single brain cells. If enough of these jumps occur, they could allow indivi...

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