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Tag: "proteins" at biology news

Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

...er via small, membrane-bound vesicles that contain proteins or other molecular cargo. When delivering their go...f gp41, which in turn drives uptake of HIV RNA and proteins by the T cell. But the Carnegie Mellon work suggests that FP-23 plays another, equally important fun...

Scratch no more: Gene for itch sensation discovered

...ional itch receptors," Chen says. "We know of some proteins that are similar to GRPR, so now we're trying to determine if there is functional redundancy in the itching pathway." GRPR knockout mice had normal reactions to painful stimuli, indicating that pain and itch are mediated by separate sets of genes in...

Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

... deep in the receptor’s core – significant because proteins normally are filled with hydrophobic (water repell...icant.” Previously studied “homologs” of nAChR – proteins that share its structure but not its signaling function – are entirely hydrophobic, Chen said, suppo...

Common cancer gene sends death order to tiny killer

...e crumpled paper jammed in a copy machine, prevent proteins from being made. Josh Mendell, M.D., Ph.D., an assistant professor in the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, suspected that p53 activates microRNAs like miR-34a because a number of studies have demonstrated that these tiny RNA molecu...

Research identifies protein that signals flowering in squash plants

... with the photoperiodic induction of flowering are proteins known as CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). CO does not appear to travel long distances through the phloem, but rather, it strongly influences the production of another substance (i.e. florigen) that does. Recent work in a number of laboratori...

Cellular message movement captured on video

... of a cow aorta. They added genetically engineered proteins tagged with red and green fluorescence markers to ...can now see the dynamics of how paxillin and other proteins move inside the cell with new fluorescent labels and live-cell video microscopy,” said Chien, direct...

Cells re-energize to come back from the brink of death

...cells that become cancerous lack caspase and other proteins needed to support apoptosis after MOMP releases cytochrome c. But this victory over death is short-lived if CICD is activated. However, some cancerous cells not only dodge death from apoptosis by eliminating caspase activation, but they also foil CID...

Blood test may help signal tumor's remission, return in throat cancer patients

A blood test that detects proteins commonly released by a growing tumor could one day...nts who showed a decline in several cancer-related proteins following chemotherapy and radiation treatment were more likely to remain in remission, while those ...

Simulations unravel outer membrane transport mechanism

... provide a rare window on the complex interplay of proteins involved in the active transport of materials acro...elp researchers study the interactions of multiple proteins in complex systems, such as the TonB-dependent transporter, Gumbart said. “As we get more computa...

How sneaky HIV escapes cells

...rs of his team discovered what’s needed to qualify proteins for exosomal travel. “Surprisingly, all that’s ... chemicals to normal human cells that force nearby proteins together into a clump, and this was enough to get them sent out of the cell in exosomes. If they add...

The insect vector always bites twice

...ing in the arthropod vector saliva the immunogenic proteins responsible. They called on immunological techniqu...resence of antibodies targeting specifically these proteins contained in an extract of total saliva of the culprit vector. This approach, based on the studi...

Largest synthetic gene ever built offers insights into anti-malarial drug resistance

...ent heme from crystallizing. "We know these mutant proteins are controlling pH across two different membranes, but we don't yet know exactly how they are doing it," Roepe says. "Still, knowing the pH values can help pharmacologists and chemists redesign a molecule to take advantage of these changes."...

Loss of stem cells correlates with premature aging in animal study

...e body’s response to damaged DNA, and mutations in proteins in the DNA damage response underlie certain types of cancer and other disorders in humans. This work appears in the inaugural issue of Cell Stem Cell. “The reason we’re seeing the early signs of aging in these mice is that we’re exhausting their a...

Study shows big power of small RNAs, not just proteins, in halting cancer

...in surrounding healthy cells. Most suspected that proteins would be revealed as key to the power of p53, but this latest research published June 6 by Nature now identifies miRNAs as a critical force behind the anti-proliferation potential of p53. Expression of most miRNAs is reduced in tumors, suggesti...

Brightening prospects of using fluorescent nanotubes in medical applications

...remely stable and can last for months. Fluorescent proteins – widely used for imaging living systems – begin fading within a few hours. Quantum dots last several days before degrading. Hertel’s team is currently working on the next step necessary for many biomedical uses: finding a way to attach molecules ...

Research shows cord blood comparable to matched bone marrow

.... Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) are a group of proteins on bone marrow cells that can provoke the immune system to respond. When doing bone marrow or cord blood transplants, doctors generally try to have the donors’ and recipients’ HLA types match as closely as possible. Wagner added that increasing the...

Breakthrough developments in rheumatoid arthritis reported

...others to directly regulate the immune response to proteins containing citrulline. Citrulline is formed when a specific enzyme comes in contact with arginine, one of 20 common amino acids in proteins. When one of the enzymes is present, nitrogen is removed from the chemical structure of arginine and it conver...

'Lucky 13' as new gene discovery offers further hope for childhood blindness

...believes that lebercilin may be involved in moving proteins from the inner to outer segments of photoreceptors in the retina. Protein transport is essential within retinal photoreceptor cells as they are long, thin cells with a highly evolved structure on one end (the outer segment) which detects light and se...

Newly discovered antibody may be body's natural defense against Alzheimer's

...dies selectively target aggregates of beta amyloid proteins called "oligomers" that are toxic to brain cells, .... The antibodies recognize a particular shape that proteins assume only when they become these toxic aggregates." The ability of the antibodies to recognize...

Researchers shed light on mechanism of action used by anti-cancer drug

...erfered with Mcl-1 translation, a process in which proteins are synthesized from their constituent amino acids...ress, which results from accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER. The ER is a subcellular structure which plays a key role in cellular protein disposition....

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