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Tag: "protein" at biology news

St. Jude study solves mystery of mammalian ears

...evious study, Zuo and his colleagues showed that a protein called prestin is the motor in mammalian outer hair cells triggers this contraction. And that is where the debate begins. While both mammals and non-mammals have cilia on their outer hair cells, only mammalian outer hair cells have prestin, which dr...

Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

... a cell critical for maintaining immunity. Another protein — gp41 — then enables HIV to penetrate a T-cell membrane. Fusion takes place specifically through a short stretch of gp41 called fusion peptide 23, or FP-23 for short. Prior studies have shown that FP-23 fuses with, and can even break apart, blood ce...

One species, many genomes

...ed that genes for basic cellular functions such as protein production or gene regulation rarely suffer knockout hits. Genes that are important for the interaction with other organisms, on the other hand, such as those responsible for defense against pathogens or infections, are much more variable than the av...

Identified main genetic variants involved in response to HIV

...age of patients, particularly in a gene encoding a protein which seemingly participates in viral replication, and is also located in chromosome 6. Genetic variants associated to genes encoding HLA-B and HLA-C molecular systems would explain up to 15% of viral load variation among patients, whereas the thir...

Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

... chemical such as nicotine binds to an ion channel protein on the cell surface, the protein starts a “conformational wave” that propagates a signal through the protein body to the cell membran...

Research identifies protein that signals flowering in squash plants

...umber of laboratories has focused on a role for FT protein and/or FT mRNA as the florigenic signal, and evidence is building that the FT protein is responsible, at least in tomato, rice, and the model plant Arabidopsis (which is in the mustard o...

Cellular message movement captured on video

...on toward the cell's nucleus of a message-carrying protein called paxillin (orange) in tandem with actin fila...n Diego published videos of a key message-carrying protein called paxillin moving abruptly from hubs of communication and transportation activity on the cell s...

Blood test may help signal tumor's remission, return in throat cancer patients

...ssion. Patients who experienced large increases in protein levels were more likely to exhibit a return of the...tors. Finally, patients with the sharpest rises in protein levels had lower chances for survival, with patients who had a history of smoking experiencing the l...

Gene therapy delivery of nerve growth factors reverses erectile dysfunction in animal model

...ed mice at four weeks after treatment. Fluorescent protein studies also showed that the delivered genes had been effectively incorporated into the target nerve cells. According to Dr. Glorioso, HSV delivery of GDNF or neurturin presents a potentially important new approach for the treatment of ED. "Becaus...

Simulations unravel outer membrane transport mechanism

...ated the interaction of part of the inner membrane protein TonB (shown in red) and the luminal domain (in gre...The yellow sphere represents the point on the TonB protein at which the force was applied. To view the results of the simulation, please go to: http://www.life...

How sneaky HIV escapes cells

... travel. “Surprisingly, all that’s needed for a protein to get out of the cell in exosomes are the ability...milar exosomal deportation fate. The major HIV protein ‘Gag’ has both of these properties that cells sense in selecting exosomal cargoes. When the research...

The insect vector always bites twice

...infected, exposed to bites. Comparison of salivary protein immunogenic profiles obtained showed that they dif...c for two Glossinia species investigated (a 42 kDa protein in G. fuscipes fuscipes, and 50, 55, 65 and 72 kDa proteins in G. morsitans morsitans) could be used...

Hormone helps mice 'hibernate,' survive starvation

...fasting. They focused on a nuclear receptor – a protein that turns genes on and off in the body – called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, or PPAR-alpha, which is known to control the use of fat as energy. Starving mice without PPAR-alpha become hypoglycemic and quickly die. In analyzin...

Research team identifies new Alzheimer's gene

... cells from Alzheimer’s patients and that the GAB2 protein produced by this gene is present in those brain cells containing tangles. When the researchers silenced GAB2 in preliminary studies it increased a molecular process thought to play an important role in the development of tangles. Based on these findi...

Largest synthetic gene ever built offers insights into anti-malarial drug resistance

...ct the PfMDR1 gene. They first obtained the PfMDR1 protein sequence from the NIH PubMed data base. They then "back translated" the protein sequence using a computer program to change the parasite gene sequence − which combines nucleotide...

In mice, drug protects against diabetes and atherosclerosis

Blocking a single protein with an experimental drug prevented and treated bo... carrying the gene variant. The lipid chaperone protein aP2 acts as a signal in cells, setting off a chain of inflammatory and metabolic responses to consum...

'Lucky 13' as new gene discovery offers further hope for childhood blindness

...ount of energy. "LCA is usually a disease where protein function has been lost completely, but carriers of...e mutation, who will almost certainly have reduced protein levels, nevertheless function perfectly normally," explains Professor Inglehearn. "This being the ca...

U-M researchers discover gene switched off in cancer can be turned on

...issing – in some cancer cells. By exposing the BRM protein to an inhibitor drug, the researchers were able to turn the gene back on, allowing BRM to be expressed. The researchers found this gene is turned off in about 15 percent of tumors studied, including cells from lung, esophageal, ovarian, bladder, colo...

Newly discovered antibody may be body's natural defense against Alzheimer's

...est tube. However, it gathered up much more of the protein when the amyloid was "aged" in a way that allowed soluble aggregates to form. These beta amyloid "oligomers" can grow into insoluble "fibrils" that cluster around brain cells and are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. While monomers are produced ...

Researchers shed light on mechanism of action used by anti-cancer drug

...identified a mechanism by which sorafenib inhibits protein translation, and which may be involved in reducing...tuent amino acids. However, the mechanism by which protein translation was inhibited by sorafenib remained largely unknown. In the present work, Grant and h...

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