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Tag: "produces" at biology news

Common cancer gene sends death order to tiny killer

...nucleic acid (RNA) made by the same machinery that produces other types of RNA in the cell, such as the messenger RNAs that carry the instructions to make proteins. Once produced, microRNAs stick to messenger RNAs and, like crumpled paper jammed in a copy machine, prevent proteins from being made. Josh Me...

Largest synthetic gene ever built offers insights into anti-malarial drug resistance

...gest synthetic one ever built, and it successfully produces large quantities of the encoded protein, whose function can now be easily studied. In research published in the May 22 issue of the journal Biochemistry, the researchers say that with the addition of the recreated gene, PfMDR1 and its protein, they ...

Plastic that grows on trees

...rovide an additional benefit: It is reusable, thus produces none of the wastewater in other methods that convert fructose to HMF. Metal chlorides belong to a class of ionic-liquid-soluble materials called halides, which “in general work well for converting fructose to HMF,” Zhang said — but not so well whe...

Mutating the entire genome

...ells cultured, Capecchi says, while the new method produces the desired result in one of every 100 cells. So it is 10,000-100,000 times better. That is important, because multiple molecular steps are needed for a mouse to develop a human cancer – and such mice are used to learn how to treat or prevent can...

UCF nanoparticle offers promise for treating glaucoma

...e the eye, and the compound blocks the enzyme that produces carbon dioxide. Seal and a team of collaborators including Sanku Mallik, of North Dakota State University, developed the research on using nanoparticles as a delivery mechanism for the compound after supervising a student summer project at UCF. Du...

How 'memory' T cells curb the spread of viruses throughout the body

...etime. The immunity occurs when the immune system produces cells called lymphocytes that specifically attack and eliminate the virus at the time of infection. After the infection subsides, most of the lymphocytes die but some remain in the body as “memory lymphocytes” and protect the body from recurrence of ...

Helping chlorine-eating bacteria clean up toxic waste

...a model shows that changing a particular condition produces a particular result, the lab will try it out and see if the result matches the model. Eventually, Richardson said, some commonalities should appear. "There will be a suite of models, and we can highlight features that are common across several mod...

Ancient retrovirus sheds light on modern pandemic

...olving antiviral defense gene called TRIM5a, which produces a protein that binds to and destroys the virus before it can replicate within the body. "We know that PtERV1 infected chimps, gorillas and old-world monkeys 4 million years ago but left no traces of having infected humans. Our theory is that this i...

Antarctic icebergs -- Hotspots of ocean life

...melt. The researchers discovered that this process produces a “halo effect” with significantly increased phytoplankton, krill and seabirds out to a radius of more than two miles around the icebergs. They may also play a surprising role in global climate change. “One important consequence of the increased ...

Understanding why C. difficile causes disease -- it's hungry

...Two of the genes code for the toxins the bacterium produces that cause disease and a third gene codes for a protein that makes a hole in the organism’s cell envelope to let the toxins out. The last two genes are of greatest interest to Sonenshein and his colleague, Bruno Dupuy from the Institut Pasteur. One ...

Genome of Clostridium botulinum reveals the background to world's deadliest toxin

The genome of the organism that produces the world’s most lethal toxin is revealed today. This toxin is the one real weapon in the genome of Clostridium botulinum and less than 2 kg — the weight of two bags of sugar — is enough to kill every person on the planet. Very small amounts of the s...

How brain pacemakers erase diseased messages

... by rapid-fire electrical pulses deep in the brain produces what they call an "informational lesion." By relaying a repetitious and therefore meaningless message, constant pulses overwhelm the erratic bursts of brain activity characteristic of disease. "Periodic bursts in the brains of people with tremor -...

Detecting cold, feeling pain: Study reveals why menthol feels fresh

...rd. In response to high temperatures, the receptor produces pain and irritation. "All of these studies use natural products to understand pain mechanisms in the periphery of the body, where they are first sensed," says Julius. Ultimately, pain signals are transmitted from the peripheral nervous system i...

Better insight into brain anatomical structures

...ast agent using manganese oxide nanoparticles that produces images of the anatomic structures of mouse brain which are as clear as those obtained by histological examination. Magnetic resonance images after injection of the manganese oxide nanoparticles gave a view into different areas of the mouse brains—...

Scientists discover rare 'gene-for-gene' interaction that helps bacteria kill their host

...elanin. The researchers found that Photorhabdus produces a special phenoloxidase inhibitor to protect itsel...is molecule is also an antibiotic and Photorhabdus produces it to kill off other microbes that might grow in the corpse of the dead insect. To test their fi...

Genetic roots of bipolar disorder revealed by first genome-wide study of illness

...hought to exert its therapeutic effects. The gene produces an enzyme (diacylglycerol kinase eta) that functions at a point closer to the root of the lithium-sensitive pathway than does the protein that lithium is thought to target. Scientists can now try to develop more effective medications by focusing on ...

Molecule that destroys bone also protects it, new research shows

...05 with the discovery of a new type of T cell that produces IL-17, now called TH-17," she said. "We know now that almost all autoimmune diseases, at least in the mouse model, are caused by TH-17 cells. This new information has forced scientists to revise completely how they view their favorite disease. Every...

LIAI scientists make important finding on cytomegalovirus transmission

...ffects the majority of the world’s population, but produces little or no symptoms in healthy individuals. However, it can cause multi-organ disease in newborns or persons who are immuno-compromised such as organ transplant recipients or AIDS patients. Ware said, "The main importance of these experiments i...

Dinosaur hearing, listening to muscle noise, quieter cubicles

...trument's bore, the chamber where air vibrates and produces pitch. Wilfried Kausel of the University of Music and Performing Arts in Austria ( kausel@mdw.ac.at ) will present growing experimental evidence that wall vibrations and thickness are important (4pMU2). REDUCING NOISE IN MRI SCANNERS Magnet...

Scientists seek useful traits in wild cottons

... by killing the wheat with herbicide. "This produces massive thrips pressure on the cotton plants, and results in a lot of damage to those first four true seedling leaves," he said. "We measure the leaf damage, identify cottons that show thrips resistance and subject those to further tests." S...

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