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Tag: "prefrontal" at biology news

Alcohol's effects on gene expression in the central nervous system

...ene expression profiling in the nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and ventral tegmental areas show that dist...rawal differentially alters gene expression in the prefrontal cortex of mice. More than 300 genes were found to be altered by acute alcohol treatment. "The prefr...

Brain Scans Reveal How Gene May Boost Schizophrenia Risk

... humans that activity of the front brain area, the prefrontal cortex, is regulated by dopamine production in the... with antipsychotic drugs that block dopamine. The prefrontal cortex is critical for motivation, learning in response to reward, and working memory ?functions imp...

New clue to cocaine addicts' quirky behavior

... connections between two higher brain regions--the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus--and the nucleus accumb...system involved in processing reward behavior. The prefrontal cortex is involved in processing information, and the hippocampus is involved in learning and memory...

Thinking the pain away? Study shows the brain's painkillers may cause 'placebo effect'

...to, and processing of, pain: the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the pregenual rostral right anterior cingu... pain. For example, activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was associated with the expectation of pain relief reported by the volunteers. In other areas...

Scientists uncover new clues about brain function in human behavior

...thy volunteers. They identified three areas of the prefrontal cortex, located in the front part of the brain, that have been implicated in decision-making, representation of social knowledge, and judgment. Those regions are the dorsolateral, the medial, and the orbitofrontal cortex. Specifically, the dorsolater...

Research Permits First-Ever Visualization of Psychological Stress in the Human Brain

...ress and negative emotions. On the other hand, the prefrontal cortex is also associated with the ability to perform executive functions -- such as working memory and goal-oriented behavior -- that permit humans to adapt to environmental challenges and threats. "The message from this study is that while stress m...

Womb needed for proper brain development

...on may not be beneficial," said Dr. Witelson. "The prefrontal regions appear particularly vulnerable. Is it because they are the most premature at birth?" The prefrontal regions of the brain that were most affected by the lack of development are important for numerous i...

Clocking in Pillow Time without the Pillow

...reviously associated with memory tasks—namely, the prefrontal cortex, the dorsal striatum, and the medial temporal lobe. However, when sleep-deprived monkeys took the drug, they showed heightened glucose metabolism in these same brain regions. The researchers compared these results to suggest a biological basis...

Noise And Delays Explain Why Some Genes Oscillate In Activity

...reviously associated with memory tasks—namely, the prefrontal cortex, the dorsal striatum, and the medial temporal lobe. However, when sleep-deprived monkeys took the drug, they showed heightened glucose metabolism in these same brain regions. The researchers compared these results to suggest a biological basis...

Cortex matures faster in youth with highest IQ

...ckness and IQ varied with age, particularly in the prefrontal cortex, seat of abstract reasoning, planning, and ...ance imaging, showing that levels of activation in prefrontal areas correlates with IQ, note the researchers. They suggest that the prolonged thickening of prefro...

Engineered mouse mimics cognitive aspects of schizophrenia

...n in schizophrenics--by indirectly influencing the prefrontal cortex, a major center for cognitive function. To...r activity in the striatum contributed to abnormal prefrontal cortical function. Importantly, found the researchers, they could not reverse these cognitive defic...

Watching the brain switch off 'self'

...ated structures, while introspection activated the prefrontal cortex, they found. Importantly, the researchers found that activity in the self-related prefrontal cortex was silenced during intense sensory processing. As a result, wrote the researchers, "We prop...

Morning grogginess more debilitating than sleep deprivation, according to CU-Boulder study

...., have shown cortical areas of the brain like the prefrontal cortex take longer to come "on-line" following sle...p than other areas of the brain, Wright said. The prefrontal cortex is thought to be responsible for problem solving, emotion and complex thought. The CU-Boulde...

Face perception is modulated by sexual orientation

...e facial expressions are processed; and regions in prefrontal cortex and the reward circuitry, where the assessment of facial beauty is processed. Numerous studies have shown that the neural response to faces is modulated by cognitive factors such as familiarity, attention, memory, visual imagery, and emotion. ...

Ritalin packs punch by elevating norepinephrine, suppressing nerve signal transmissions

...ug's effects on dopamine and norepinephrine in the prefrontal cortex, he noted. These results will eventually have to be combined, as changes in one area of the brain are likely to affect other areas. "We've been thinking about this for a long time," Waterhouse said of his research. "We hope to have a good id...

Memory loss affects more of the brain than previously thought

...with MCI showed a lower level of activation in the prefrontal cortex (during formation and retrieval), left hippocampus (during retrieval) and left cerebellum (during formation) and an increased level of activation in the posterior frontal lobes (during retrieval). "These findings suggest that we should be pay...

Study reveals how ADHD drugs work in brain

...rchers report that ADHD drugs primarily target the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region of the brain that is associated with attention, decision-making and an individual's expression of personality. The finding could prove invaluable in the search for new ADHD treatments, and comes amidst deep public concern over...

The brain's executive is an 'event planner'

...ng in this higher brain region, called the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). The researchers, led by Hajime Mus... concentrated on a brain region called the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), which many studies have shown to be involved in such higher brain functions as plannin...

Himalayan forests disappearing

...ng in this higher brain region, called the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). The researchers, led by Hajime Mus... concentrated on a brain region called the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), which many studies have shown to be involved in such higher brain functions as plannin...

Lost in thought: Brain research

... particularly interested in certain regions in the prefrontal cortex, a part of the brain known to be involved i...tside world. Rather, the self-related areas of the prefrontal cortex appear to be engaged specifically when we are aware both of the sensory experience and of our...

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