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Tag: "precursors" at biology news

DNA-damage test could aid drug development

...blood cells formed in the bone marrow of mice. The precursors to red blood cells are handy for this because such... last stage of red cell formation, and DNA-damaged precursors generate red blood cells containing an easily detected "micronucleus" consisting of fragments of nuc...

Study shows isolation of stem cells may lead to a treatment for hearing loss

...irm the possibility that self-supporting hair cell precursors exist in or can be derived from the postnatal mammalian cochlea. Currently there are no clinical treatments to repair these hair cells vital to normal hearing. In the United States, 30% of people over the age of 65 have a handicapping hearing l...

New player in commitment to life as a fat cell

...al new player in early events that commit fat cell precursors to becoming full-blown fat, according to a report in the February issue of the journal Cell Metabolism, published by Cell Press. Drugs that block some activities of the enzyme, known as xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), might therefore offer a novel ant...

New study sheds light on 'dark states' in DNA

...emical consequences of long-lived states? Are they precursors to some of the chemical photoproducts that we know cause damage? That's the Holy Grail in this field -- connecting our growing knowledge of the electronic states of DNA with the photoproducts that damage it," he said. ...

Penn researchers replace organ in adult mice using 'single-parent' stem cells

...he researchers could then harvest fetal liver cell precursors for transplant. Ultimately, the scientists found that uniparental cells, regardless of parent of origin, were able to functionally replenish the entire blood-producing system of adult mice. The scientists were able to maintain animals for more...

Primitive yeast yields secrets of human cholesterol and drug metabolism

...t, the altered human cells accumulated cholesterol precursors and died because cholesterol is essential for cell survival. To show that Dap1 directly works with P450s and not through some other biochemical steps, Espenshade’s team tested the ability of human Dap1 protein to bind to four of the 57 known human...

Study of planarians offers insight into germ cell development

...m is an ideal subject for the study of germ cells, precursors of eggs and sperm in all sexually reproducing species. The planarian Newmark studies, Schmidtea mediterranea, is a tiny creature with a lot of interesting traits. Cut it in two (lengthwise or crosswise) and each piece will regenerate a new planari...

Growth factor stimulates rapid extension of key motor neurons in brain

... and to the potential replacement of neurons using precursors or 'neural stem cells'," says Macklis, who is on the faculty at Harvard Medical School. ...

Signal protein shows promise for blocking tumor promoters in skin cells

... on the skin. These plaques, or lesions, resembled precursors of cancer. Breeding experiments with the mice indicated that high Srcasm levels counteracted the effects of Fyn. The findings reveal that levels of Fyn and Srcasm work in a kind of see-saw ?when Srcasm production is low, dangerous amounts of Fyn ...

Transplanted photoreceptor precursor cells restore visual function in mice with retinal degeneration

...erizing the mechanisms that generate photoreceptor precursors from stem cells. Swaroop believes the research ha...ve proven to be functional. The photoreceptor precursors were transplanted into three different types of mice with retinal degeneration caused by distinct ge...

Pourquié lab identifies genes involved in formation of vertebral precursors

...lator -- that regulates the formation somites, the precursors of vertebrae. In their most recent findings, the t...ing the periodicity of the production of vertebral precursors in the embryo," said Dr. Pourquié. "I'm excited about this work because mutation of the genes ...

Scientists identify 36 genes, 100 neuropeptides in honey bee brains

...cular peptide it will create, because neuropeptide precursors undergo extensive post-translational processing." Some of the neuropeptides the researchers discovered were a result of direct measurements of bee brains using an extremely sensitive mass spectrometer. Some of the genes were found because they rese...

Striking the right balance between excitation and inhibition

...om neural stem cells, has a reciprocal function in precursors of inhibitory and excitatory neurons: cells with high levels of activated Notch became excitatory neurons, while cells with low levels of Notch became inhibitory. Interestingly, the researchers found that one way Notch combats an inhibitory fate is...

New angiogenesis finding may help fight cancer growth

...n three dimensions, to form the tubes that are the precursors to new blood vessels," Bresnick says. "Then we got excited." Further tests showed that NK-B could inhibit angiogenesis in four ways. It prevents the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key stimulator of blood-vessel formatio...

Surprising symbiosis: Glassy-winged sharpshooter eats with friends

...ithin host tissues and feeding each other chemical precursors needed to make nutrients. In the future, Eisen says, the bacteria will likely evolve into organelles of the insect, losing their distinction as bacteria altogether. Looking ahead, Eisen is continuing to explore the genomes of other animal-bacterial...

Knowledge of dendritic cells branches out

...iza Hall Institute have discovered the different " precursors " that produce DC. In doing so, they have also determined that the practical operations of DC are more specialized than previously believed. Rather than being generalized "police "within the body, it seems that DC are effectively organized as special...

How bad is malaria anemia? It may depend on your genes

...hritis or some cancers. Using immature blood cell precursors grown in a dish, the research team showed that adding MIF to the cells decreases both the final number and maturity of red blood cells. The researchers believe this effect can lead to anemia. When infected with plasmodium, mice genetically engineer...

Making a face: A new and earlier marker of neural crest development

... "We show in this work that neural crest stem cell precursors are designated very early in development -- as early as the gastrula stages -- and in an independent fashion from those other tissues," said Martín García-Castro . The researchers grew grafts of cells from "stage 3" chick embryos, before the neura...

With few factors, adult cells take on character of embryonic stem cells

... transferring their nuclear contents into egg cell precursors called oocytes or by fusion with embryonic stem cells, earlier studies showed. Those findings provided evidence that unfertilized eggs and embryonic stem cells contain factors that can confer pluripotency to differentiated cells, Yamanaka said. "...

With few factors, adult cells take on character of embryonic stem cells

... transferring their nuclear contents into egg cell precursors called oocytes or by fusion with embryonic stem cells, earlier studies showed. Those findings provided evidence that unfertilized eggs and embryonic stem cells contain factors that can confer pluripotency to differentiated cells, Yamanaka said. "...

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