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Tag: "polymerase" at biology news

Risk of HIV transmission highest early in infection

...gested the development of affordable tests such as polymerase chain reaction assays to directly monitor the presence of the virus, instead of relying on the current method of antibody screening. In addition, Dr. Pillay and Fisher asserted that more innovative and effective prevention strategies are needed to...

RNA enzyme structure offers a glimpse into the origins of life

...of the journal Science. "An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ribozyme is the foundation of the entire RNA World hypothesis," Robertson said. "With that, you would have an RNA capable of making copies of itself; mutations or errors in some copies would result in variations that would be acted on by Darwinian na...

A first glimpse of the influenza replication machine

...and function of the protein and sheds light on how polymerase mutations contribute to transmission of avian flu ... multiplying in the cells of an infected host. The polymerase is crucial in this process because it copies the viral genome and directs the production of its prot...

Novel experiment documents evolution of genome in near-real time

...hat was a surprise to almost everybody because RNA polymerase is involved in one of the core processes of any ce...riment more than 50 times and mutations in the RNA polymerase gene appeared again and again." The researchers report that mutations in both genes appeared toge...

Nobel Laureate finds 'elegant' explanation for DNA transcribing enzyme's high fidelity

...er critical piece of the puzzle: how the so-called polymerase II enzyme discriminates among potential RNA buildi...Kornberg’s group captured the first picture of the polymerase II transcribing complex by X-ray crystallography in 2001. Those structures revealed the complex with...

NHGRI aims to make DNA sequencing faster, more cost effective

...his method uses the natural catalytic cycle of DNA polymerase to capture just a single DNA base on an immobilized primer/template. A fluorescence scanner will be used to scan and identify hundreds of thousands of molecules at once. Then the cycle will be repeated. This phased award will increase if specific m...

'GreeneChip' -- New diagnostic tool that rapidly and accurately identifies multiple pathogens

...traditional and slower methods, such as culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, the GreeneChip was used in the analysis of an unknown sample from a patient with a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF)-like syndrome. Within six to eight days of infection, Marburg virus causes an acute febrile illnes...

Hopkins scientists link immune response to 'ghost' parasites and severely congested sinuses

...cous membrane lining the nose, and using real-time polymerase chain reaction tests, analyzed the samples for any genetic differences between the groups. When researchers initially compared all the nasal tissue samples, they found that half had the gene for AMCase turned on, or expressed, to make the chitinase...

Detailed 3-D image catches a key regulator of neural stem cell differentiation in action

...he body. When active, Scp1 prevents the enzyme RNA polymerase II from reading and switching on neuronal genes in... nervous system Scp1 is switched off, enabling RNA polymerase II to efficiently transcribe information encoded by neuronal genes and driving the maturation of neu...

From a lowly yeast, researchers divine a clue to human disease

...ular stop sign, telling another protein called RNA polymerase II when to stop transcribing genetic information from DNA into related threads of RNA. The polymerase reads along DNA strands, building RNA as it goes. Multiple genes strung along a single length of DN...

Silver bullet: UGA researchers use laser, nanotechnology to rapidly detect viruses

...tests often must be confirmed with a test known as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which detects the virus itself by copying it many times. The test can take anywhere from several days to two weeks. Tripp said the latter is clearly too long, especially in light of emerging threats such as H5N1 avian influenza....

Professors to develop hand-held pathogen testing device

...e introduced into the device where it will undergo polymerase chain reaction for the selected harmful pathogens. Polymerase chain reaction is a process that takes a small amount of DNA and makes billions of copies so the pathogens can be easily detected, Hashsham explained. Most of the genetic material in an...

Weizmann Institute scientists discover a molecular security mechanism for keeping mutations in check

... of a family of enzymes called DNA polymerase. DNA polymerase travels along one strand of the double stranded mo...in, in this case, serves to anchor replacement DNA polymerase molecules ?careless ones ?to the clamp. p53 enters the picture when it is alerted to the damage and ...

Infected for life

...ely on acyclovir-based drugs that target the viral polymerase and inhibit viral DNA replication during the acute infection. However, they do not target the latent infection, and thus cold sores return throughout the lifetime of the infected individual. Finding an miRNA that interacts with the cellular TGF-b pat...

Pathway toward gene silencing described in plants

...idn't localize properly. In the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) mutant, Pol IVa is unaffected, but the function of all the other proteins downstream is lost, inferring that it came into the act second. The picture that emerged from this logical approach is that Pol IVa gets things started, churning out ...

When it comes to gene transcription, random pauses aren’t quite so random, study finds

... our cells, few are as important as the enzyme RNA polymerase (RNAP), which has the unique ability to faithfully copy genetic information from DNA. In fact, all organisms--from bacteria to people--depend on RNAP to initiate the complex process of protein synthesis. Despite its crucial role in cell biology, fund...

Basic work on E. coli identifies two new keys to regulation of bacterial gene expression

... process of transcription, in which the enzyme RNA polymerase constructs chains of RNA from information containe...y, Gourse investigated the interaction between RNA polymerase and promoters from the E. coli chromosome. RNA polymerase reads the information in DNA and transcrib...

Unusual mechanism keeps repair protein accurate

...p its repairs accurate. The protein, called DNA polymerase lambda, is one of a group of proteins known as DNA...DNA polymerases," Suo says, "and this is the first polymerase to use this mechanism to maintain its accuracy when making new DNA. It is both surprising and unprec...

New genes implicated in rheumatoid arthritis

...p. Then, using immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction, they confirmed the expression of the most significantly over-expressed genes in synovial tissues. In addition, they compared gene expression in synovial tissue of the RA patients with gene expression in synovial tissue of patients wit...

Technique speeds up detecting, treating wound bacteria

...ection methods though a technique called real-time polymerase chain reaction, the physician-researcher from the West Los Angeles Veterans Administration Medical Center can drastically cut the time it takes for lab personnel to figure out just what bacteria they're dealing with. "The big advantage of real-time...

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