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Bioartificial kidney under study at MCG

...d phosphorus, stimulate red blood cell production, play a role in blood pressure regulation and clear and metabolize cytokines that help direct the immune system. The new device for kidney failure adds billions of kidney cells that can perform many of these important kidney functions. Human proximal tubu...

Molecular biology fills gaps in knowledge of bat evolution

...61 percent incomplete, according to Springer. Bats play a major ecological role as plant pollinators and insect predators. For Springer, this latest research is significant because it shows that molecular information can contribute to resolving and illuminating long-standing problems in evolutionary biol...

W.M. Keck Foundation funds study of friendly microbes

...cterize previously unknown chemical compounds that play important roles in regulating the properties of the microbial community and human physiology. To do so, the researchers will use a new type of mass spectrometer with an unprecedented capacity to accurately and rapidly identify these metabolites. "We...

New binding target for oncogenic viral protein

... attach ubiquitin. The proteins recognized by Fbw7 play key roles in cell division, cell growth, differentiation, and cell death. "These proteins are also some of the most broadly acting cellular oncogenes, and include cyclin E, c-Myc, Notch, and c-Jun," noted Dr. Clurman. "When Fbw7 is mutated in cancer...

Drug That 'Tags' Decision-making Areas Of The Brain May Aid

...ze his or herparents, a senior citizen learning to play piano, or the process ofaddiction following repetitive exposure to specific drugs. Thesebehaviors all result from the formation of new connections betweenindividual neurons or modifications of existing connections in thebrain.“Imaging of nicotine rec...

Antarctic ice shelf retreats happened before

...arsen B, the new study suggests that the ocean may play a more significant role in destroying them than previously thought. The University of Durham's, Dr Mike Bentley, one of the leaders of the project said, 'We know that rising air temperatures can break up ice shelves but there has been a suspicion fo...

Timing is everything: First step in protein building revealed

...d how is no small task -- roughly 27 bits likeeIF1 play a role at one point or another. To tackle the problem, Lorschand his colleagues move between "timing" studies of the ribosome'smolecular comings and goings, and genetic studies that create mutantribosome parts, which likely affect ribosome function -...

Researchers Uncover Key Step In Manufacture of Memory Protein

A cellular enzyme appears to play a crucial role in the manufacture of a protein needed for long-term memory, according to a team of researchers led by scientists at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health. The protein is kno...

Research advances quest for HIV-1 vaccine

...rface of the virus. The gp41 protein is thought to play a key role in mediating entry of HIV-1 into human cells. A research group led by Drs. Dennis R. Burton and Ian A. Wilson from The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California performed a study examining the detailed molecular structure of the ...

Ecological destruction fuels emerging diseases

...standing of the roles these thousands of parasites play in different diseases, something that will require a detailed understanding of their often complex multi-host life cycles. "It's very difficult to link these things up," he says. "It's very time consuming to do that, but without that information we ...

New Technique for Tracking Gene Regulators

...Huntington’s disease in humans, and genes that may play an importantrole in certain cancers.“This technique can be applied to any protein that binds to specificsequences in the DNA and promises to be a very useful tool,?says Dunn.This research was funded by the Office of Biological and EnvironmentalResear...

Bound for destruction: Ubiquitination protects against improper Notch signaling

... to study thepossibility that ubiquitination might play a part in rendering theunbound Notch receptor inert. Their attention was drawn to Nedd4 (amember of the ubiquitin ligase family of molecules that directly bindto proteins marked for degradation), as it had previously been shownthat Nedd4 plays a role...

Combination therapy boosts effectiveness of telomere-directed cancer cell death

...NA sequences found at the ends of chromosomes that play a key rolein controlling the life span of cells. With every cell division,telomeres get a bit shorter until eventually they become so short thatthe enzymes that copy DNA for cell division no longer work properly andthe cell stops dividing. In a sense...

GATA: a graphic alignment tool for comparative sequence analysis

...NA sequences found at the ends of chromosomes that play a key rolein controlling the life span of cells. With every cell division,telomeres get a bit shorter until eventually they become so short thatthe enzymes that copy DNA for cell division no longer work properly andthe cell stops dividing. In a sense...

Novel Enzyme Shows Potential As An Anti-HIV Target

...compact retrovirus encodes just 14 proteins, which play different roles in promoting viral infection and virulence. As a retrovirus, HIV uses the host’s cellular machinery—including RNA polymerases, which carry out transcription—to copy its RNA genome into DNA and infiltrate human chromosomal DNA. Once th...

Mitochondrial DNA mutations play significant role in prostate cancer

...es convincing evidence that mitochondrialmutations play an important role in prostate cancer," said Dr. Petros."This is the first evidence that individuals who inherit a mutation ofthe mitochondrial DNA are at an increased risk of developing prostatecancer later in life. Interestingly, mitochondrial DNA i...

Molecular machine may lead to new drugs to combat human diseases

...eviously believed to have no function actually may play specialized roles in cell behavior. While humans have introns, they don't have Group I introns. Many pathogens that cause human diseases, however, do have Group I introns, including the HIV opportunistic infections pneumocystis, a form of pneumonia,...

An HIV Protein Plays a Surprising Role in Gene Activation

...mbly, leading the authors to ask whether Tat could play a similar role. To study this question in living human cells, Green and colleagues turned to chromatin immunoprecipitation, a technique that detects proteins bound (directly or indirectly) to DNA. Working with three well-known effectors of transcrip...

A bacterial genome reveals new targets to combat infectious disease

...million people worldwide. The nematodes themselves play host to bacteria that live within their cells, but in this case, the relationship is classic mutualism, with each benefiting from the other. Indeed, the Wolbachia bacterium is so crucial to its host nematode that apparently eradicating it with antibi...

Scientists discover the cellular roots of graying hair

...stem cells?depletion. MITF, they conclude, seemsto play a crucial role in maintaining the supply of stem cells withinthe hair follicle, and graying is the result of “incomplete maintenanceof melanocyte stem cells.?The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health, andNishimura received fundi...

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