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Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

...s HIV to penetrate a T-cell membrane. Fusion takes place specifically through a short stretch of gp41 called fusion peptide 23, or FP-23 for short. Prior studies have shown that FP-23 fuses with, and can even break apart, blood cells and other man-made, cell-like structures called liposomes. FP-23 likely ...

Identified main genetic variants involved in response to HIV

...laboration has been the largest ever to have taken place in a large scale study on genetic differences between patients infected by HIV, and is the first study of this kind in the field of infectious disease. Catalan participants have been coordinated by Javier Martínez-Picado, ICREA research professor in ...

Discovery in orange cauliflower may lead to more nutritious crops

...rtially because they lack a "metabolic sink," or a place to store the compound. Developing staple crops with more vitamin A is important because vitamin A deficiency, common in developing countries, leads to compromised immune systems and is the leading cause of blindness in children. "A large percenta...

How to lose weight and not go hungry: HU researcher develops drug that mimics feeling of 'fullness'

...y at the Hebrew University, has been named a first place winner of a Kaye Innovation Award, which was presented today (June 6) during the 70th meeting of the Hebrew University Board of Governors. Linde and his associates have developed a compound that mimics the activity of the naturally occurring horm...

Studies to find better ways to preserve human eggs, ovarian tissue under way

...an get larger during de-vitrification, which takes place in seconds. “We developed a solution where we can warm up tissue in under five minutes and still get no ice formation,” says Dr. Song, adding that ice formation aside, it is difficult to thaw rock-solid tissue at room temperature in a matter of se...

In mice, drug protects against diabetes and atherosclerosis

... and other metabolic problems. This immunity takes place even if the animals are severely obese or have high amounts of cholesterol and consume dangerously fatty foods. Use of the compound not only appears to prevent the development of these diseases, but also to reverse the symptoms of these illnesses in ...

Salty oceans provide early warning for climate change

... there is no large-scale salt monitoring system in place in the southern hemisphere oceans. Zahn thinks that regular measurements taken in the waters around South Africa and New Zealand could be useful. “It could act as an early warning system for climate changes 10-20 years down the road,” he says....

Rising skin cancer rates are more likely to affect wealthy people, says 12-year review

...skin cancer, coupled with ageing populations, will place greater demands on dermatology and other related specialties over the coming years. “The number of people aged 60 and over is set to rise by more than a half by 2030 and 80 per cent of all skin cancers occur in this age group” says Dr Dolan. “I...

Researchers examine carbon capture and storage to combat global warming

...ely clean fossil fuel, which can then be burned in place of coal, said Mark Zoback, professor of geophysics and a researcher on the project on storage in coal. The project, which is funded by GCEP and GEOSEQ-a partnership involving the Department of Energy, several national labs, government groups and i...

Plants recognize their siblings, biologists discover

...to your garden armed with plants, consider who you place next to whom. It turns out that the docile garden plant isn’t as passive as widely assumed, at least not with strangers. Researchers at McMaster University have found that plants get fiercely competitive when forced to share their pot with strangers ...

In nature, proteins sweep up nanoparticles

...te association of proteins and minerals that takes place as far as hundreds of microns away from the cell.” In other words, in addition to pumping nano-sized sulfide waste particles into the environment, bacteria also pump proteins into the environment. These proteins then sweep the sulfide nanoparticle...

Marine phytoplankton changes form to protect itself from different predators

... more than 25 percent. The transformations took place over periods of three to six days, and the overall size difference could be dramatic. “When one of these cells changes to the biggest colony form, although it takes a while, it’s like changing from a mosquito to 76 blue whales or 3,000 bull elephant...

Researchers discover 'acquired' DNA key to certain bacterial infection

... Mycobacterium cousins. Such evolution likely took place over thousands of years, he pointed out, and may have come from a pathogen which also has the ability to infect environmental amoeba....

Researchers identify protein pathway involved in Parkinson disease development

...metabolism. Although cells have mechanisms in place to protect against oxidative damage, this system can break down in the face of environmental challenges or genetic mutations. The Emory researchers found that the mitochondrial protein PINK1 normally protects cells from oxidative stress and promo...

Why do oysters choose to live where they could be eaten?

..., in the case of oyster larvae, the selection of a place to call home can be a life or death decision. According to an article in the May edition of Ecological Monographs, a team of scientists has found that despite the risk of being eaten by cannibalistic adults, oyster larvae choose to settle in areas o...

First clinical trial of gene therapy for childhood blindness

... The trial’s first operations have already taken place in young adult patients who developed the condition as children. Mr James Bainbridge, who leads the surgical team, said: "It is very encouraging that we can deliver genes to an extremely fragile site in the eye without complications." Professor M...

An ancient bathtub ring of mammoth fossils

...ge—all in a matter of days. Preliminary results place most mammoth finds in the Lake Lewis area at elevations of 600 to 1,000 feet, which echoes the distribution of boulders that originated from far away—so-called erratics—and rafted in on icebergs. The evidence suggests that these elevations mirror the...

Newborn neurons like to hang with the 'in' crowd

... to fit in, newborn brain cells need to find their place within the existing network of neurons. The newcomers jump right into the fray and preferentially reach out to mature brain cells that are already well connected within the established circuitry, report scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological...

Students invent protective pouch to enhance cell therapy

...he patient, the injected cells need to settle in a place where they can provide effective treatment without...e to devise a way to keep the microcapsules in one place where their cells could thrive and deliver effective therapy. During the past school year, the en...

Fat screen delivers plant-derived chemical with antidiabetic effects

...l mode of action is the idea that the body needs a place to store lipids," Tontonoz said. "If the body becomes less able to store lipids in fat, it may deposit in other tissues," where it can spur disease. Despite their efficacy, the development and clinical use of TZDs is limited by adverse effects suc...

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