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Tag: "pinpoint" at biology news

Genomic Analysis Uncovers New Targets for HIV Vaccine

... will be a series of future genome-wide studies to pinpoint additional targets for HIV vaccines. In the new analysis, patients with specific gene variants in key immune system cells appear to be much better at controlling the proliferation of the virus after infection. These gene variants are known as polymor...

Brain inflammation may be friend, not foe, for Alzheimer's patients

...ly engineered a one-of-a-kind mouse that gives him pinpoint control over brain levels of a human molecule known as interleukin-1beta, a well-recognized molecular kingpin in the realm of inflammation. IL-1 beta, a signaling molecule that promotes brain inflammation, was one of the first molecules that scien...

New bacterium discovered -- related to cause of trench fever

...t drugs, so it is essential to explore further and pinpoint which one is involved.” The cat scratch bacteria and the one that brought down soldiers and AIDS patients can be reined in with the same antibiotic, but the Peruvian microbe is usually countered with different antibiotics, Koehler says. Also, car...

Researchers reveal structure of protein altered in autism

...e of the journal Structure, should help scientists pinpoint the consequences of other genetic abnormalities associated with the disorder. “By understanding the three-dimensional structure of the normal protein, researchers can now make predictions about how mutations in the gene affect the structure of the g...

Keeping the immune system from starting a 'food fight'

...reat, Hotamisligil said. Their current findings pinpoint STAMP2 as a critical factor to prevent overt inflammatory responses during everyday nutrient fluctuations or conditions of nutrient excess. In fat cells, a lack of STAMP2 led to aberrant inflammatory responses to both nutrients and acute inflammatory...

Researchers publish first marsupial genome sequence

...possum and human genomes, researchers were able to pinpoint genetic elements that are present in placental mammals, but missing from marsupials —that is, the genetic factors that may underlie many of the differences between the two types of mammals. Interestingly, about one-fifth of the key functional ele...

Individuals and populations differ in gene activity levels, not just genes

...g development so difficult, or why it's so hard to pinpoint an exact cause for a particular disease," said Akey. "People have so much variation both in their genetic information and in how those genes are activated and regulated. We need to have a much better understanding of human genetic and gene-expression...

York mathematician probes geometric route to combat viruses

...coding the structures of these protein shells that pinpoint the locations of the proteins and the bonds between them. With collaborators Professor Cristian Micheletti, from the International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, and Professor Anne Taormina, from the University of Durham, she ...

Corals that can fight global warming may one day help fragile reefs

... and coral disease is unclear. "It is difficult to pinpoint yet how temperature stress decreases the immune response," said Harvell. "Although corals are near the base of the evolutionary tree, they are complicated animals." The complexities arise from different levels of symbiosis within a coral, both with...

Brain's reward circuit activity ebbs and flows with a woman's hormonal cycle

...t activity in humans has remained unclear. To pinpoint hormone effects on the reward circuit, Berman and colleagues scanned the brain activity of 13 women and 13 men while they performed a task involving simulated slot machines. The women were scanned before and after ovulation. The fMRI pictures sho...

Researchers identify gene involved in dog size

...d DNA from more than 3,000 dogs from 143 breeds to pinpoint a specific gene sequence variant, or haplotype, associated with small size in the canine genetic code. Nearly all of the small dogs studied shared this genetic variant, implicating it as a major influence on stature in dogs. Based on their genomic...

Discovery could lead to better control of hemorrhagic fever viruses

... structure will speed up the Choe lab's efforts to pinpoint the parts of the molecule that are exploited by New World hemorrhagic fever viruses, which is necessary for the development of targeted antiviral drugs that block those parts, but not the parts involved in iron uptake. The findings of Choe and co...

Twin studies reveal genetic components leading to cardiac and kidney disease

...ormation) twin pairs, researchers can more readily pinpoint specific genes in people who are the same age. A formula measuring the difference in the frequency of traits between the siblings in each MZ and DZ twin pair establishes what is called the index of heritability. The human genome has three billion...

Scientists discover a new risk factor for Alzheimer's

... different groups of people, although they did not pinpoint the exact genetic mutations in SORL1 responsible f...e in the populations studied, but did not actually pinpoint the precise changes in the gene that contribute to disease. "Now we need to go back and look in the ...

Biologists produce global map of plant biodiversity

...ices plants provide to humans. It may also help to pinpoint areas that deserve further attention for the discovery of plants or drugs yet unknown to humanity." "Climate change may drive to extinction plants that hold important cures before we find them," says Kreft, a biologist at the Nees Institute for B...

Do you hear what i see?

...h the study. "This knowledge could help scientists pinpoint sources of extraordinary sensory processing, such as creativity and genius, as well as abnormal sensory processing, as seen in schizophrenia." Kayser notes that the findings also could be used to reveal the role of audio-visual integration in comm...

Targeting tumors the natural way

... do normal cells, a fact that allows scientists to pinpoint tumor cells lurking among the body's scores of cell types. A popular approach employs a cell-binding agent, such as a monoclonal antibody, that is powerfully attracted to the target receptor and holds fast to any cell displaying it. Although this s...

Light-based probe 'sees' early cancers in first tests on human tissue

... instances, he added, fa/LCI could help physicians pinpoint suspicious cells during a traditional biopsy procedure, making it less likely for a cancerous lesion to escape detection. Wax and his former graduate student John Pyhtila reported in the March 2007 issue of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy that their fi...

Scientists identify a candidate gene for osteoporosis

...f DNA alterations in the DARC gene, they did not pinpoint the specific alteration that was responsible for the BMD differences between the two strains of mice. However, Mohan and his colleagues predict that changes in the amino acid sequence or alterations in regulatory regions of the DARC gene may lead ...

A sweet step toward new cancer therapies

... be used to identify sulfate-laden proteins and to pinpoint the location of the sulfate groups on them. In the latest research, they extended the technique to sugars, an even more challenging task. "Sugars are not like other biomolecules," Hakansson said. "They're linked rings with lots of branches, lik...

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