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Tag: "peptide" at biology news

Neuronal 'traffic jam' marks early Alzheimer's disease

... to form an aberrant form of amyloid beta (A-beta) peptide that makes up the plaques that surround the neuron...red to have an abnormal production of human A-beta peptide that produced Alzheimer's-like plaques and subsequent neural degeneration. The scientists' analyses...

Research advances quest for HIV-1 vaccine

...f the complex formed by association of 4E10 with a peptide fragment that is identical to the section of gp41 that the antibody recognizes. The researchers identified the specific amino acids on gp41 that 4E10 interacts with and the 3D structure adopted by these amino acids. These study results suggest that 4...

Pathogen-Mimicking Vaccine As Strategy For Cancer Therapy

...CpG 7909 (ProMuneTM, Coley Pharmaceutical), with a peptide antigen were reported today in the Journal of Clin.... "The immune system mounts a response against the peptide antigen, the cancer-specific target, in the vaccine, and thus also against the antigen on the cancer...

50-year-old Mystery Solved: Protein Tags Regulate Key Ion Channel

...how cells control ion channel function: reversible peptide linkage." Ion channels are in every cell in the h...shun]. In this process, an enzyme attaches a small peptide called SUMO (for small ubiquitin-like modifier protein) onto another protein. The presence of SUMO a...

Researchers make gains in understanding antibiotic resistance

...tunnel" in the ribosome, through which the growing peptide chain moves during synthesis. This tunnel is normally blocked by macrolide antibiotics. In the mutant form, the tunnel widens, which may explain why macrolide antibiotics are no longer effective. According to Steitz, insights about the ribosomal ori...

New understanding of DNA repair may pave way to cancer treatments

...id. Consequently, his laboratory developed a small peptide that interferes with ATF2 function, efficiently bl...ctions and to allow for further development of the peptide toward clinical assessment. "Until our recent studies, we were certain that the mechanism by which ...

Engineers improve plastic's potential for use in implants by linking it to biological material

...nts Archit Sanghvi and Kiley Miller identified the peptide that attaches to polypyrrole from among the billio...ess that was repeated four more times. The sticky peptide selected, known as T59, is a string of 12 amino acids. To make certain that something else on the ou...

Innovative coating could give medical implants a longer life

... up of two parts, both playing a key role: a short peptide that is the synthetic version of the sticky dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) molecule that gives mussels their adhesive or anchoring strength and a longer peptoid polymer resembling the structure of polyethylene glycol (PEG), a widely studied antifoulin...

Tamoxifen-like drug suggests new ways to selectively block estrogen

... pushes one small part of the estrogen receptor, a peptide spiral called helix 12, out of place. By shifting helix 12 to an odd spot, GW5638 disrupts the ways in which several other molecules that normally interact with the estrogen receptor go about their jobs. These molecules, called coactivators or corep...

Gene silencing technique offers new strategy for treating, curing disease

...irst, they developed a synthetic molecule called a peptide nucleic acid, or PNA, which physically binds to DNA and blocks enzymes from copying, or transcribing, the DNA into messenger RNA. More importantly, the researchers also employed RNA itself as a silencing agent. Previous work by other scientists had ...

Discovery could be key to bioterrorism defense

...ion by Paramyxoviruses," covers the use of a novel peptide sequence of the soluble F glycoprotein, to block fusion of the virus with the host cell. This peptide can be used as a prophylactic, and/or to treat infections, and antibodies developed using this pepti...

Researchers discover stem cell 'guide' that may be key for targeting neural stem cell treatments

...to a particular brain region. The protein, a small peptide called prokineticin 2 (PK2), was found to play a key regulatory role for the proper functional integration of these new neurons in the brain. A few years ago, PK2 was shown by the same research group to be an important regulator of circadian rhythms....

Achilles heel of the herpes virus possibly found

...e pig cells by adding to cell cultures a synthetic peptide made to mimic the structure of a smaller region of the B5 receptor. This peptide looks like a functional region of B5 and apparently interferes with virus engaging of the cell recep...

Researchers develop new method for facile identification of proteins in bacterial cells

... cell extracts of microorganisms using traditional peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). The key to the new method, according to the researchers, is a "shortcut" for preparing samples that makes PMF faster and more economical. By reducing the cost of protein identification, they believe PMF can become an econom...

Pinpointing a culprit molecule in Alzheimer's disease

...clipped by enzymes, produces the amyloid beta (Ab) peptide that clusters into the amyloid plaque that clogs t...help address, wrote the researchers, is whether Ab peptide does damage inside brain cells or outside--"intracellularly." Transgenic mice produced by other rese...

University of Nevada, Reno research team discovers hormone that causes malaria mosquito to urinate

...nsects at any stage of development may be found in peptide hormones, small proteins in all animals that regul...Synthetic compounds that mimic the action of these peptide hormones should be useful as pesticides," Schooley said. "Like methoprene, DH31 only affects lower s...

A new molecule discovered in the battle between plants and disease

...istry, Washington State University Title: A novel peptide signal, AtPep1, regulates pathogen defense in Arabidopsis AtPep1 is a 23 amino acid peptide that was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana (G. Pearce, A. Huffaker, C.A. Ryan, submitted). The pept...

Bitter or sweet? The same taste bud can tell the difference

...lls that contain both NPY and CCK and see how each peptide reacts. Herness conducted the study with Fang-li Zhao, a postdoctoral researcher in dentistry at Ohio State; Yu Cao, a graduate student in neuroscience also at Ohio State; and Tiansheng Shen and Namik Kaya, both with the University of Maryland. ...

Gene therapy to lower blood pressure just enough

...well." The gene in question -- atrial natriuretic peptide or ANP -- promises to control blood pressure through a variety of effects on key areas involved in the problem of hypertension, including the relaxation of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels, increasing the vessels' diameters, and reducing the man...

Bacteria recognize antimicrobials, respond with counter-defenses

... whereby bacteria can recognize tiny antimicrobial peptide molecules, then respond by becoming more virulent....r near the surface of bacteria cell membranes. The peptide binding activates PhoQ, which sets off a cascade of signals. The signals turn on a large set of bact...

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