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Tag: "paradigm" at biology news

Climate change was the cause of Neanderthal extinction in the Iberian Peninsula

...ta is that they differ from the current scientific paradigm which makes Homo Sapiens responsible for the Neanderthal extinction. This work is a contribution to a new scientific current ?leaded by Dr. Clive Finlayson, from the Gibraltar Museum ?according to which Neanderthal isolation and, possibly, extinction...

Molecule that destroys bone also protects it, new research shows

...for nearly all immune system activities. "This paradigm underwent a sea change in 2005 with the discovery of a new type of T cell that produces IL-17, now called TH-17," she said. "We know now that almost all autoimmune diseases, at least in the mouse model, are caused by TH-17 cells. This new information...

Dinosaur hearing, listening to muscle noise, quieter cubicles

...ween the early evening and midnight. Following the paradigm that transients are most vocal when feeding, these results suggest that more feeding occurred at night when it is not possible to observe them visually. This acoustic information is a valuable supplement to traditional visual observations, and is she...

Study shows hope for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's

...They used a specific protocol, called the “oddball paradigm with novel sounds,?to collect the EEG signals, during which patients hear a series of low- and high-frequency tones as well as some novel sounds. Patients were asked to respond by pressing a button every time they heard the high frequency tone, also ...

Scientists find potential 'off-switch' for HIV virus

...hat reduces the flow of current. "The resistor paradigm is a helpful way to think about how HIV enters and exits latency, and it might serve as a useful model for latent infections by other viruses, as well," said Shenk, Princeton's James A. Elkins Jr. Professor in the Life Sciences in the Department of M...

Penn study on lung-infecting bacterial enzyme suggests new approach to cystic fibrosis treatment

...ung injury in CF patients. They also present a new paradigm for treating CF. Specific inhibitors against the enzyme, in conjunction with current antibiotic treatments and supportive measures, might be a viable near-term approach to improving length and quality of life for many CF patients, before CF gene ther...

Tissue engineering for craniofacial reconstruction

...he host tissue. The traditional tissue-engineering paradigm combines isolated cells with appropriate bioactive agents in a biomaterial scaffold. It is widely recognized that scaffold architecture can profoundly influence the behavior of cells on tissue-engineering constructs. Today, during the 85th General S...

Genomics throws species definition in question for microbes

...mittee on Systematics of Prokaryotes to consider a paradigm shift in the species definition. The need for more thorough study of the mechanisms of speciation before a more meaningful and practical species theory can be developed. The need for more comprehensive and systematic data to uncover whether...

Math model predicts cancer behavior

... bit closer to reality," Quaranta said. "This is a paradigm that is new to experimental biology." "What is happening in biology is similar to trends seen in recent decades in the physical sciences," Cummings said. "Computational models like this, in which complex behavior emerges from computer simulations g...

What's next for gene therapy? Plastic

...t VT-WF SBES, and Long. "The paper defines a new paradigm for research," said Long. Layman, whose bachelor of science degree is from Virginia Commonwealth University in chemical engineering, "typifies the way we are going to educate students in the future," Long said. "He is an engineer working in chemistry...

Slow brain waves play key role in coordinating complex activity

...devices in paralyzed patients. "This represents a paradigm shift in how we map brain function," said Berger. "As a neurosurgeon, I work within these very complicated cortical and subcortical areas where regions talk to each other, and there is a level of connectivity between cortical regions not apparent by ...

Intrinsic eye protein halts angiogenesis

...y such as corneal transplantation. "The standard paradigm has been the cornea is avascular because it has lots of anti-angiogenic molecules and it does," Balamurali Ambati said. "But knockdown of any of the other molecules does not cause blood vessels to enter the cornea. Knocking down SFLT-1 allows angioge...

AIDS study challenges conventional treatment guidelines for HIV patients

...al load. These results represent a shift in the paradigm that the rate of CD4 cell loss in a given HIV-infected individual can be accurately predicted by his or her viral load. Predicting disease progression is crucial in the treatment of HIV-positive people, such as in making the decision as to when it is...

Quick -- what’s that smell?

... the Monell researchers developed a new behavioral paradigm using trained mice to ask whether longer exposure to an odor would result in more accurate identification of that odor. The results indicated that the mice needed extra time to accurately identify more complex odors. "The well-trained mouse needs ...

Pure novelty spurs the brain

...el used what is known as an "oddball" experimental paradigm to study how novel images activate the SN/VTA of volunteer subjects' brains. In this method--as the subject's brains were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging--they were shown a series of images of the same face or outdoor scene. Howev...

New study reveals signaling pathways required for expansion of pancreas stem cells

... role, promotes their expansion, revealing a novel paradigm of signaling that explains the balance between expansion and differentiation of pancreatic epithelial progenitors. "The complications of diabetes mellitus impose enormous medical, economic, and social costs to both the patient and the health-care sy...

Gatekeeping: Penn researchers find new way to open ion channels in cell membranes

...the membrane voltage. The finding introduces a new paradigm for understanding the gating of ion channels and lays the conceptual groundwork for designing new drugs to control ion-channel activity in medical intervention. Voltage-gated ion channels are embedded in the cell membranes of most types of cells. ...

Researchers discover which organs in Antarctic fish produce antifreeze

...oidance physiology and "reveals that the long-held paradigm of hepatic-based AF synthesis and secretion is no longer universally applicable." Instead, pancreatic antifreeze expression is universal. ...

Nanowire arrays can detect signals along individual neurons

...l unmatched by other techniques; it provides a new paradigm for building sophisticated interfaces between the brain and external neural prosthetics; it represents a new, powerful, and flexible approach for real-time cellular assays useful for drug discovery and other applications; and it opens the possibility...

Study finds how organs monitor themselves during early development

...s. This work, says Dr. Lehmann, "has established a paradigm that can now be tested for the development of other organs and in other organisms, including the mouse. Eventually findings in model organisms increase our understanding of normal development and disease." ...

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