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Tag: "outer" at biology news

Elusive HIV shape change revealed; Key clue to how virus infects cells

..., PhD, focused on the gp120 protein, part of HIV's outer membrane, or envelope. gp120's job is to recognize and bind to the so-called CD4 receptor on the surface of the cell HIV wants to infect. Once it binds, gp120 undergoes a shape change, which signals a companion protein, gp41, to begin a set of action...

Researchers Uncover Key Step In Manufacture of Memory Protein

...s. The vesicles are then transported to the cell’s outer membrane, where they remain until they are ready t...nother neuron, these vesicles fuse with the cell’s outer membrane, open up, and release mBDNF. During their research, Dr. Loh and her colleagues observed mi...

Highly adaptable genome in gut bacterium key to intestinal health

...g a series of carbohydrate-binding proteins on its outer surface, B. theta is able to hold onto a seat at t... activity of genes that code for components of its outer surface cell capsule. This change in the face of this friendly, or symbiotic, species may be an impo...

UCLA scientists transform HIV into cancer-seeking missile

...ipped off HIV's viral coat and redressed it in the outer suit of the Sindbis virus, which normally infects insects and birds. By altering the Sindbis coat, they reprogrammed the AIDS virus, which ordinarily infects T-cells, to hunt down and attach to P-glycoproteins -- molecules located on the surface of m...

Falling ants glide back to trunk to avoid dangers of forest floor

...tage for ants, like Cephalotes, that forage at the outer reaches of branches and are in greatest danger of being knocked off by wind gusts or passing monkeys. There is some evidence, Dudley said, that these ants sometimes purposely drop off the tree to avoid predators, evidently secure in the fact that the...

Scientists discover that host cell lipids facilitate bacterial movement

...hrough the cell until it reaches the peripheral or outer cell membrane," explains Dr. Frederick Southwick o...can harness signals from the inner rather than the outer surface of the cell membrane. "The most exciting and surprising finding is that an intracellular ba...

Scientists solve structure of key protein in innate immune response

...ipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycolipid found on the outer membrane of certain bacteria. Once CD14 binds to LPS or another ligand, it presents the molecule to other proteins which initiate a strong pro-inflammatory response that stimulates host defenses. "Macrophages and monocytes can recognize distinct str...

New Insights Into HIV Immunity Suggest Alternative Approach to Vaccines

... part because certain proteins on HIV's protective outer coat trigger only short-lived, self-reactive antib...e immune system because these seemingly vulnerable outer coat proteins activate self-reactive antibodies. "The fundamental problem in all of HIV vaccine res...

NASA links nanobacteria to kidney stones and other diseases

..., longer missions, and exposure to the elements of outer space, health is a major concern for astronauts. To further comprehend the implications of NB, trials were conducted at NASA to examine NB, in a bioreactor chamber which simulates conditions of space travel. In this microgravity environment, NB was ...

Genetic defects give the immune system the green light to attack the pancreas

... mature ?during this time, receptor sites on their outer membrane are shaped to dock with each invader and destroy it. “As T-cells form, it is not uncommon for a few to randomly develop with the potential ability to attack the body’s own cells,?said Dr. Holler. “That’s when a safeguard mechanism normally ...

Leprosy microbes lead scientists to immune discovery

...like receptors (TLRs) that stick out of the cell's outer membrane, serving as a trip-wire to raise the alarm. The TLRs spur the monocytes to differentiate into the two rapid response cell types. Why this matters became strikingly clear when the scientists studied different forms of leprosy for the presenc...

Duke engineers develop new 3-D cardiac imaging probe

... hospitals and clinics. For example, they used the outer casing of a commercially available 2-D TEE probe to house their new 3-D model. The casing design already has been tested and approved for use. The new Duke 3-D probe is tipped with a dime-sized array of 504 individual ultrasound sensors. Each sensor...

NIH Researchers Discover How Insulin Allows Entry of Glucose Into Cells

... Biophysics. Glucose is ferried through the cell’s outer covering, or membrane, by a family of molecules kn... as microtubules. When insulin binds to the cell’s outer surface, those vesicles immediately stop moving, tether to the cell’s inner surface, then fuse with ...

Habitat use by North Pacific right whales, Eubalaena japonica, in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska

...spicuous absence of right whale sightings from the outer shelf and slope habitat in recent years, this may be due, at least in part, to a lack of survey effort there. Results of acoustic recorder deployments along the slope are much anticipated. All sightings since 1979 were in waters less than 200 m deep...

Researchers develop assay that could be applied to drug screening

...rs. All cells traffic protein cargos across their outer membrane, and one of the most important routes for cargo internalization is clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME). CME is of fundamental importance for many cellular activities including receptor down-regulation, nutrient uptake and maintenance of sign...

Master gene controls healing of skin in fruit flies and mammals

... the development and repair of insect cuticle--the outer layer of the body surface in insects--also control...ralia report that, although insect cuticle and the outer layer of mammal skin are very different chemically, the grainyhead gene is also essential for normal...

Engineers improve plastic's potential for use in implants by linking it to biological material

...lyzed. These unique peptides were displayed on the outer surface of a harmless type of virus called a bacte... acids. To make certain that something else on the outer surface of the bacteriophage virus wasn't responsible for its perceived stickiness, the researchers ...

NASA probe could reveal comet life, scientists claim

...e will crash into the comet and tunnel through its outer layers, producing a crater and a plume of gas and ...that Deep Impact will verify their theory that the outer crust of the comet will consist of asphalt-like material with permafrost beneath. The small icy frag...

New vaccine means bye-bye to bacteria in the lung

...enovirus vector vaccine expressing a region of the outer membrane of P. aeruginosa, called OprF, which had previously been recognized as a promising vaccine candidate. This region of the bacteria was expressed in the capsid area of the vector. Immunization of mice with this vaccine induced antibody product...

Researchers reveal secrets of flying snakes

...each has a small groove that runs along the fang's outer edge, where the venom drips down and into the prey. Whether or not the snake's choice of prey is related to its gliding ability is unknown. ...

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