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Tag: "orientation" at biology news

Found: Missing sequence of the human Y chromosome

...tion of a 13-year effort to elucidate the orderand orientation of 2.85 billion basepairs that comprise the humangenome. The high-quality sequence spanned more than 99% of theeuchromatic (gene-containing) portion of the genome with an accuracy of99.999%, but despite this accomplishment, substantial sections ofchr...

Devising Nano Vision for an Optical Microscope

...timized for particular properties (such as angular orientation and polarization). How this structured illumination field—engineered differently to highlight the particular geometry of each type of specimen—scatters after striking the target can reveal the tiniest of details. “The scattering patterns are extreme...

Vitamin A's paradoxical role in influencing symmetry during embryonic development revealed

...they also will have to be 'instructed' about their orientation in the body. These cells need to know more than what to become. They need to know how to pattern a fully-functional structure or organ." "Only by studying the behavior of stem cells within the embryo will we be able to understand how these cells are...

How monarch butterflies are wired for navigation

...polarized light source, the butterflies lost their orientation response. The researchers also pinpointed the location of the circadian clock in the butterfly brain. Such circadian clocks govern the approximately 24 hour activity and metabolic cycles of animals from the simplest insects to humans. Reppert and hi...

Six previously blind patients detect light, motion, identify objects with retinal prostheses

...iminate simple shapes-i.e., figure out the spatial orientation of a bar or the capital letter L-with 61 to 80 percent accuracy. The researchers also noted that when there is no electricity running through the device, the subjects do not show any improvement in perceptual acuity, "suggesting that electrical stim...

Orientation and the egg

...o feel that the site of sperm entry determines the orientation of the future body axes. "It would now make sense to base our future experiments on the premise that the mammalian egg neither has nor requires predetermination for successful development," explains Dr. Hiiragi. ...

Overbearing colored light may reveal a second mechanism by which birds interpret magnetic signals

Magnetic orientation is critical to the migratory success of many bird ...esearchers have found clues to suggest that birds' orientation abilities may be more complex than previously thought and that birds may be able to interpret magnet...

Brain size may depend upon how neural cells are cleaved

...e identified a signaling pathway that controls the orientation in which dividing neural progenitor cells are clea... studies by other researchers that showed that the orientation of cleavage planes in dividing neural progenitor cells in the neocortex determines the fate of the r...

Nanotubes inspire new technique for healing broken bones

...tached. Some of these groups assist the growth and orientation of hydroxyapatite crystals, allowing the researchers a degree of control over their alignment, while other groups improve the biocompatibility of nanotubes by increasing their solubility in water. "Researchers today are realizing that mechanical mim...

Out of sight, out of mind? Not necessarily

...s high degree of accuracy for both the directional orientation and color tasks was significantly above chance," said Tony Ro, associate professor of psychology and principal investigator for the study. "Even though the human primary visual cortex activity was temporarily shut down, it's clear that detailed visu...

Scientists discover new way to look at how molecules twist and turn on water

...rs are the first studies to determine the detailed orientation of simple soap head groups at the water surface, using a unique combination of laser-based experiments and computer modeling. These studies add important new insights into ongoing studies in the Richmond laboratory that seek to understand how these ...

Displaced songbirds navigate in the high Arctic

...e researchers then recorded the birds' directional orientation in cage experiments. The scientists found that b...th adult and juvenile birds abruptly shifted their orientation from the migratory direction to a direction leading back to the breeding area or the normal migrator...

Researchers learn how blood vessel cells cope with their pressure-packed job

...hmic stretching caused by a beating heart. Such an orientation of stress fibers is a hallmark of healthy blood ve...s perpendicular to the direction of stretch. "This orientation of actin fibers can be thought of as a feedback control in which the external stresses imposed on th...

USC researchers track down the stem cells that create feathers

... colleagues found, to their surprise, was that the orientation of the ring of feather stem cells is related to the type of feather being generated: the stem cell ring is horizontally placed in radially symmetric downy feathers, but is tilted in bilaterally symmetric feathers, with the lower end of the ring on th...

How the neuron sprouts its branches

...he studies in cell culture revealed that the Golgi orientation preceded the preferential growth of long dendrites. "This finding showed us that we weren't just seeing a correlation between Golgi and longer dendrites," said Ehlers. "Initially, when these growing dendrites are all essentially uniform in length, t...

'Computer-chemistry' yields new insight into a puzzle of cell division

...oration described how they discovered the probable orientation required for a Cdc25B phosphatase enzyme to "dock" with and activate a cyclin-dependent kinase protein complex that also functions as an enzyme, known as Cdk2-pTpY--CycA. The work was funded by the National Institutes of Health. Detailed study of su...

Alleged 40,000-year-old human footprints in Mexico much, much older than thought

...in the shower. Many rocks retain evidence of their orientation at the moment they cool in the form of iron oxide grains magnetized in a direction parallel to the Earth's magnetic field at the time of cooling. Because the Earth's field has repeatedly flipped throughout the planet's history, it is possible to date...

New insights into neural tube defects

... within neural tissues in fruit flies controls the orientation and migration of cells. Working with colleagues Brian Ciruna, Diana Lee, and Alexander Schier, who were at New York University when the research was conducted, and Andreas Jenny of Mount Sinai, Dr. Mlodzik's and Dr. Schier's laboratories have now f...

Face perception is modulated by sexual orientation

...t a phase in visual processing during which sexual orientation modulates how we perceive individual faces. The fi...nder of the individual who is viewed or the sexual orientation of the viewer. The researchers found that, consistent with their hypothesis, the gender of a viewed...

Structure determined for p53 tumor suppressor protein as bound to DNA for anti-cancer activity

... the dimer, the two cores have to be in the proper orientation to bind DNA. "So we decided that we needed to somehow lock the protein into a conformation that's compatible with the dimer binding to DNA. We used a chemical trick in which we modified a DNA base to allow it to attach directly to a part of the pro...

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