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Tag: "opposing" at biology news

Opposing fat metabolism pathways triggered by a single gene

...t in its normal actions, nhr-49 sets in motion two opposing pathways: it increases expression of a gene acs-2, which leads to reduction of fat content, and it increases expression of another gene fat-7, which, by reducing acs-2, increases fat content. In its function, nhr-49 resembles a mammalian NHR, called ...

Computer modeling reveals hidden conversations within cells

... same proteins with different chemicals could have opposing effects on cells," explained Hoffmann. "Our model shows that, analogous to how a telephone transmits an infinite number of different signals along a single wire, it is the timing of the proteins' activity that allows them to exert intricate control ...

Novel molecular 'signature' marks DNA of embryonic stem cells

...hich has not been previously described, merges two opposing influences ?one that activates genes and another that represses them. When combined in this way, the negative influence seems to prevail and, as a result, the genes positioned near bivalent domains are silenced. However, the activating influence appe...

Lizard 'third eye' sheds light on evolution of color vision

...n "on" response. "It may seem strange to have two opposing signals in the same cell," says the study's senior author, King-Wai Yau, Ph.D, a professor in the Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience at Hopkins, "but the unique mechanism renders these parietal photoreceptors most active at dawn and dusk." ...

Chemical signaling helps regulate sensory map formation in the brain

...al-lateral axis within the developing brain is the opposing regulating force, working along with ephrinB1 to specify the topographic target selection in the optic tectum, a brain region that processes information from the eye. At the molecular-signaling level, Wnt3 acts through two different classes of growt...

'Scent of a woman' tells male redback spiders to find a mate

...ore the females mate with someone else." These are opposing pressures, and the researchers found that males are able to gauge which issue is most pressing in their particular situation while they are still juvenile and use that information to maintain or speed up how quickly they develop. "We call it 'scent...

Genetic tug of war determines sexual differentiation

...ation results from the interplay between these two opposing signals." The researchers published their findings in the May 22, 2006, issue of the journal Public Library of Science-Biology. Their research was supported by the National Institutes of Health. In mammals, a fertilized egg with two X chromosomes w...

Tiny airborne particles are a major cause of climate change

...hed in Science Express online, weaves together two opposing effects of atmospheric aerosols to provide a comprehensive picture of how they may be affecting our climate. Cloud formation is dependent upon the presence of small amounts of aerosols such as sea salt and desert dust. These tiny particles serve a...

Pollutant haze heats the Arctic

...vered effect is a surprise. "What we found is an opposing effect where particulate pollution changes clouds so they warm the surface," Garrett says. "This effect is most pronounced in Arctic winter when it is dark and there is no sunlight. The Arctic winter is when it is most polluted because there is almos...

MIT designs portable 'lab on a chip'

...c pump, tiny electrodes with raised steps generate opposing slip velocities at different heights, which combine to push the fluid in one direction, like a conveyor belt. Simulations predict a dramatic improvement in flow rate, by almost a factor of twenty, so that fast (mm/sec) flows, comparable to pressure-d...

Researchers to develop active nanoscale surfaces for biological separations

.... These "lipid bilayers," which are made up of two opposing layers of fat molecules, act as the cell's barrier to the outside world. DNA molecules move on these surfaces in two dimensions, much like objects on a conveyor belt. Kane and his colleagues recently discovered that the mobility of DNA molecules is c...

Swimming 'to the left' gets bacteria upstream, and may promote infection

...cells swim in a straight line, but near a surface, opposing forces of flow and bacterial forward motion cause the bacteria to continuously swim to one side ?to the left." The study determined that swimming "to the left" is a hydrodynamic process that is fundamentally related to the way the cells propel thems...

Global 'sunscreen' has likely thinned, report NASA scientists

...udy published last week, scientists found that the opposing forces of global warming and the cooling from aero...ematics, New York, also showed that the apparently opposing forces of global warming and global dimming can occur at the same time. The GISS research team co...

Marine phytoplankton changes form to protect itself from different predators

... consumers, identify those consumers and change in opposing ways depending on which consumers are present.” The behavior could have implications for global climate change because Phaeocystis blooms play a key role in the carbon cycle of cold oceans, accounting for up to 85 percent of local productivity dur...

St. Jude study solves mystery of mammalian ears

...illate. That, in turn, would amplify the sound. An opposing group of scientists maintains that although the vibration of the outer hair cell body itself—somatic motility—does maximize the vibration of the cilia, the cell body works independently of its cilia. That is, vibration of the mammalian cell dominates...

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