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Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

...h ease. The researchers found that after HIV docks onto a host cell, it dramatically lowers the energy req...lecule called gp120 initially helps the virus lock onto its host T cell, a cell critical for maintaining immunity. Another protein — gp41 — then enables HIV...

Dirty snow may warm Arctic as much as greenhouse gases

... dirty particles into the atmosphere and they fall onto snow, the net effect is we warm the polar latitudes,” said Charlie Zender, associate professor of Earth system science at UCI and co-author of the study. “Dark soot can heat up quickly. It’s like placing tiny toaster ovens into the snow pack.” The...

Could fungal collection hold the key to new life-saving drugs?

...een 2000 and 2005, over 20 new drugs were released onto the market originating from natural sources. And although this is the first time SIDR has worked with fungal cultures, there are a number of prescription drugs deriving from metabolites produced by fungi that have been on the market for many years. ...

Research finds that circadian rhythms dominate all life functions

...changing environment. "When we standardize genes onto a common scale that measures levels of expression, we could not find a single gene that did not oscillate," Ptitsyn said. ...

Lessons from the orangutans: Upright walking may have begun in the trees

...ges that allowed our arboreal ancestors to venture onto thin branches. They could have gripped multiple branches with their toes and distributed their center of gravity more effectively, while keeping one or both of their long arms free to reach for fruits and other supports. Orangutans also keep thei...

Alien plants attack using 'resource conservation' as weapon, researchers say

...raspberry. Using an electronic device that clamped onto the leaves of the plants, the scientists controlled the amount of light reaching the leaf and then measured photosynthesis and water-use rates. Later, they ground up and analyzed the leaves in a laboratory to determine nutrient content. By calculatin...

Toxoplasmosis infection trick revealed by scientists

...tomic structure of a key protein which is released onto the surface of the parasite just before it invades host cells in the human body. They found that the protein known as TgMIC1 binds to certain sugars on the surface of the host cell, assisting the parasite to stick to, and then enter the human cell. ...

The longest carbon nanotubes you've ever seen

...ctor industry, with a novel substrate and catalyst onto which the carbon attaches. Supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Office of Naval Research, University of Cincinnati (UC) professors Vesselin Shanov and Mark Schulz collaborated with post-doctoral researcher Yun Yeo Heung and s...

DOE JGI sets 'gold standard' for metagenomic data analysis

...a substantial number of sequences that fail to fit onto those larger fragments. On many occasions, this information is not taken into account, depriving the analysis of valuable information embedded in that sequence. The solution proposed by Mavrommatis and his colleagues was to evaluate and compare t...

Researchers attach genes to minichromosomes in maize

...ecause they allow scientists to add numerous genes onto one minichromosome and manipulate those genes easily because they are all in one place, Birchler said. Genetic modification with traditional methods is more complicated because scientists have little control over where the genes are located in the ch...

Researchers develop way to calculate speed of bacterial sex

..., donor bacteria cells act like vampires, latching onto nearby unsuspecting non-related bacteria cells. Just as the bite from a vampire leads a victim to be transformed into a vampire, the donor bacteria’s "bite" injects genetic material into the recipient, causing the recipient to become a donor. The con...

A new portable biosensor detects traces of contaminants in food more quickly and cheaply

...identifying antibiotics). Once the antibodies hook onto the contaminating particles they are attracted to the surface of a transductor which converts the contact with the antibodies into electrical signals. By measuring these electric signals the device can determine the concentration of contaminants in t...

Leeches ferry infection among newts

...ese spores bursts open and releases its endospores onto the mouthparts of a feeding leech. Their findings are outlined in the January issue of Journal of Parasitology. In 2004, Raffel and his Penn State colleagues Peter J. Hudson, professor of biology, and James R. Dillard, then an undergraduate stude...

UC Davis researchers use heated nanoprobes to destroy breast cancer cells in mice

...loodstream, the probes began to seek out and latch onto receptors on the surface of malignant cells. Th...r region, causing the magnetic nanospheres latched onto the tumor cells to change polarity thousands of times per second, instantaneously generating heat. A...

How trees manage water in arid environments

...hat water is scarce to begin with and hard to hold onto when there is a rare cloudburst. Rain that collects in puddles is quickly sucked up by evaporation into the dry air. Most of the rest runs off before it can soak into the ground. Maintaining an adequate supply of water is a constant challenge, and wa...

Synthetic peptide targets latent papilloma virus infections

...divides into two daughter cells, the plasmids glom onto the chromosomes so as not be left behind, and are ...- in actuality, a protein called E2 - that latches onto a cellular protein that, in turn, attaches to histone proteins that envelop the chromosome, tetherin...

Renegade RNA -- Clues to cancer and normal growth

... The researchers then stuck the same six-block end onto another type of small RNA, a small-interfering RNA or siRNA that turns off genes. This also forced the siRNA into the nucleus. According to Mendell, these results demonstrate for the first time that despite their tiny size, microRNAs contain eleme...

Cancer-killing invention also harvests stem cells

...one more, very important fact: the selectins grab onto a specific carbohydrate on the surfaces of white blood cells, stem cells, and cancer cells. Associate Professor King decided to capture stem and cancer cells before the selectins release them. Harvesting Stem Cells Because bone marrow stem ...

Microbes start immune response by sneaking inside cells

...essarily rest quietly until invading bacteria lock onto receptors on their outside skins and rouse them to action, as previously thought. In a new paper, University of Michigan scientists describe their findings that bacteria can barge inside these guard cells and independently initiate a powerful immune ...

Ancient amphibians evolved a bite before migrating to dry land

...sts that amphibians evolved a bite before emerging onto land as fully terrestrial animals." ...

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