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St. Jude study solves mystery of mammalian ears

... non-mammals have cilia on their outer hair cells, only mammalian outer hair cells have prestin, which dri...d a line of genetically modified mice that carried only mutant prestin in their outer hair cells. The researchers then tested the animals’ responses to soun...

Genomic Analysis Uncovers New Targets for HIV Vaccine

... virus that causes AIDS. These findings represent only the first of what investigators said will be a ser...ts are known as polymorphisms. "These results not only approximately double our understanding of the factors that influence variation amongst individuals i...

Scratch no more: Gene for itch sensation discovered

...dentified, GRPR stood out because it is present in only a few nerve cells in the spinal cord known to relay pain and/or itch signals to the brain. So they began to study some mice that were missing the GRPR gene to find out how they were different from normal mice. "The research was a little disappointin...

One species, many genomes

...rful methods. While the technology used so far can only identify genes that have changed or are lost relative to the reference genome, direct sequencing of the genome of wild strains will allow the detection of new genes. The plan is to decipher the genomes of at least 1001 Arabidopsis varieties. A new in...

Identified main genetic variants involved in response to HIV

...ymorphisms (SNPs), are single variations affecting only one nucleotide or base of the genomic sequence. Despite humans sharing 99.9% of the genome sequence, there are still 3 million genetic variations –which make us different from one another– 90% of which are due to SNPs. Hence, a good knowledge of thes...

Art and music for the birds

...m what we consider to be our masterpieces. But the only gauge humans have on what’s good music is our own interest,” says the Rutgers-Camden artist. “Of course, we may find that birds have their own criteria for assessing our music. So, to see it they might prefer Miles Davis to the Dixie Chicks – you sho...

Common cancer gene sends death order to tiny killer

...f the 500 known human microRNAs that are activated only in cells containing p53. It turned out that the miR-34a gene is turned on by p53, and in fact, experiments demonstrated that p53 binds directly to the genetic material near miR-34a to promote its activation. Concluding that p53 controls miR-34...

Research identifies protein that signals flowering in squash plants

...mained vegetative under LD conditions and flowered only when grown under SD conditions. The authors then used the potyvirus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) as a delivery vector to test whether long-distance movement of FT mRNA and/or FT protein was required for floral induction. The choice of a pot...

Cellular message movement captured on video

...erstand the details of these processes, we can not only understand how normal cells function, but we can also look at diseased cells to see why they sometimes don’t move properly or why they don’t transmit information properly.”...

Researchers discover inherited mutation for leukemia

...e of a hereditary predisposition. However, usually only two or three people within a family are affected, making it difficult to do the genetic studies needed to find possible mutations, Plass says. The family examined in this research was identified by collaborator Henry Lynch at Creighton University...

Innovative smallpox vaccine research study to be conducted at Case Medical Center

...o specific treatment for smallpox disease, and the only prevention is vaccination. The World Health Organization declared the disease eradicated in 1980 with the success of a worldwide vaccination program. Routine vaccination against smallpox among the general public was ceased in 1972 because it was no l...

Cells re-energize to come back from the brink of death

...CD is activated. However, some cancerous cells not only dodge death from apoptosis by eliminating caspase activation, but they also foil CIDC. “Our study sought to understand how a cancer cell without caspase activation bypasses CICD as well,” Green said. The St. Jude team discovered that a cell that...

Brain inflammation may be friend, not foe, for Alzheimer's patients

...that inflammation as a result of disease or injury only adds to the brain’s woes, the new findings show th...s of the mice with IL-1beta stuck in overdrive had only about half “This work provides evidence that blocking all inflammatory responses in Alzheimer’s d...

Blood test may help signal tumor's remission, return in throat cancer patients

...eously analyze the concentrations of each protein, only a small amount of blood was required for the test. The majority of the patients had a complete response to therapy. Patients whose blood levels of these cytokines and growth factors dropped and remained low following treatment were more likely to...

Threats to wild tigers growing

...the discouraging numbers--there are believed to be only about 5,000 wild tigers left--some conservation programs have been successful. Dinerstein and his coauthors highlight a program in the Terai-Arc Landscape of northwestern India and southern Nepal as a notable victory. The scheme features wildlife cor...

Researchers find 24 species believed new to science in Suriname rainforest

...is home to 100 indigenous groups. In Suriname, the only former Dutch colony in South America, the forests are at risk from foreign logging and other resource extraction. Cutting and burning tropical forests worldwide contributes 20 percent of the total carbon emissions into the atmosphere, more than a...

Gene therapy delivery of nerve growth factors reverses erectile dysfunction in animal model

...tor closely related to GDNF. Control mice received only the virus without the GDNF or neurterin genes inserted. Four weeks after the treatment, rats administered HSV-GDNF exhibited significant recovery of intracavernous pressure (ICP) and systemic arterial pressure (AP) compared with rats treated with...

Modeling the restless brain

...r, chaotic neural interactions that typically last only a few milliseconds. "Our model suggests that t... different regions of the brain, but this activity only accounts for around 2 to 5 percent of the total activity of the brain. Fluctuations of similar magni...

How sneaky HIV escapes cells

...vailing belief that HIV and other retroviruses can only leave and enter cells by virus-specific mechanisms. “It appears that cells make HIV and other retroviruses by a naturally occurring export mechanism,” says Stephen Gould, Ph.D., Professor of Biological Chemistry at Johns Hopkins. Cells normally exp...

New study reports hotel guests at risk from carbon monoxide poisoning

...es where CO poisonings had occurred and found that only 12% had installed CO detectors after the incidents.... In 101 sites where no CO poisoning had occurred, only 11 % had installed CO detectors in guest rooms. Dr Weaver continues, “Despite evidence of efficac...

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