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Genomic Analysis Uncovers New Targets for HIV Vaccine

...t appear to have helped some of the patients fight off the virus and delay the onset of full-blown AIDS. ...of the HLA genes, known as HLA-A and B, are turned off by HIV when it enters the body, which keeps the immune system from recognizing the virus as foreign....

Researchers discover inherited mutation for leukemia

...nd kind of change occurs later that turns the gene off altogether, leading to leukemia. This latter alter...eeded genes. But abnormal DNA methylation can turn off genes that control cell growth, and that lead to tumor growth. "Our findings identify for the fi...

Brain inflammation may be friend, not foe, for Alzheimer's patients

...The work suggests that doctors not rush in to turn off molecular events that scientists have widely consi...cine or other strategy to protect against or fight off Alzheimer’s. Work on an Alzheimer’s vaccine has at times been promising, reducing the number of plaq...

Blood test may help signal tumor's remission, return in throat cancer patients

... new target for drug therapy. Drugs that help turn off NF-kappaB are currently being tested in clinical trials at NIH and elsewhere. The researchers note that a few of the patients experienced elevations in cytokine levels related to other illnesses or injuries, and not to throat cancer; therefore, th...

Soils offer new hope as carbon sink

...d," he said. The trials also measured gases given off from the soils and found significantly lower emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide (a greenhouse gas more than 300 times as potent as carbon dioxide). NSW DPI environmental scientist Steve Kimber said an added benefit for both the farmer w...

Old memory traces in brain may trigger chronic pain

...can think of chronic pain as the inability to turn off the memory of the pain,” Apkarian said. “What’s exciting is that we now may be relieving what has clinically been the most difficult to treat—the suffering or the emotional component of pain.” Scientists have always tried to understand pain from ...

A new plant-bacterial symbiotic mechanism promising for crop applications

...odium might use to gain entry to the plant and set off nodulation. The first observation was that the bacteria did not penetrate the roots of its host-plant by the hairs. It took advantage of “crack zones” comparable with wound areas. The set of results obtained from subsequent work, seeking to ident...

Hormone helps mice 'hibernate,' survive starvation

...clear receptor – a protein that turns genes on and off in the body – called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, or PPAR-alpha, which is known to control the use of fat as energy. Starving mice without PPAR-alpha become hypoglycemic and quickly die. In analyzing the molecular impact of PP...

In mice, drug protects against diabetes and atherosclerosis

...one protein aP2 acts as a signal in cells, setting off a chain of inflammatory and metabolic responses to consumption of fatty foods. Some of those effects make the body less sensitive to the sugar-lowering action of insulin, raising the risk of diabetes. For many decades, aP2 was believed to act only in...

Ancient DNA traces the woolly mammoth's disappearance

... if humans might have been responsible for killing off the small, terminal populations that were left.” Barnes, along with Dr. Adrian Lister of the University College London and the Natural History Museum in London and others, had earlier found evidence that bison, bears, and lions underwent major pop...

Newly found sensing system enables certain bacteria to resist human immune defenses

...hanism lets the bacteria protect itself by warding off attacks from antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are defense molecules sent by the body to kill bacteria. Bacteria are divided into two types, gram-positive and gram-negative, with the primary difference being the nature of the bacterial cell wall....

Salty oceans provide early warning for climate change

...s discovered that a build up of salt in the waters off the coast of South Africa could help to speed up ocean circulation in the North Atlantic, despite the two areas being thousands of kilometres apart. “A salt surge is enough to kick start circulation,” says Zahn. Meanwhile, a decrease in saltiness in ...

Breakthrough developments in rheumatoid arthritis reported

...re it starts and perhaps offer treatments to stave off the symptoms. It turns out that those with these antibodies who also have a particular variety of HLA, a complex of genes that regulate immune function, have a 30 times higher risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis than those without these genetic r...

U-M researchers discover gene switched off in cancer can be turned on

...pressed. The researchers found this gene is turned off in about 15 percent of tumors studied, including cells from lung, esophageal, ovarian, bladder, colon and breast cancers. The researchers were able to use existing drugs, which showed some usefulness in turning on the BRM gene. But new drugs would...

Researchers examine carbon capture and storage to combat global warming

... ''The notion is that the sooner we wean ourselves off fossil fuels, the sooner we'll be able to tackle the climate problem,'' said Sally Benson, executive director of the Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP) and professor of energy resources engineering. ''But the idea that we can take fossil fuels ...

Physicist cracks women's random but always lucky choice of X chromosome

...fic reason as to why one X chromosome was switched off rather than the other. The observations also seem ... single protein plug. That single plug then closes off one of the XIST suicide genes allowing its host X chromosome to continue to operate. However the oth...

ASU research shows connection between testosterone, dietary antioxidants and bird coloration

...fits than originally thought. They appear to fight off the negative impacts that testosterone can have on an animal’s health. The researchers, Kevin McGraw an assistant professor in ASU’s School of Life Sciences and Daniel Ardia, of Franklin and Marshall College in Pennsylvania, focused their work on...

Study investigates 'divorce' among Galapagos seabirds

... long-lived seabird found in the Galapagos Islands off the coast of Ecuador. Many Nazca booby females sw...other animals, she said. A male Nazca booby cast off by a current mate may be selected by a different female the next year, after he has had a chance to ...

Runners -- Let thirst be your guide

...r and recording their ending weight after toweling off the body sweat. “Most people don’t know how much they really sweat while exercising, but this simple test can tell you approximately how much fluid losses you are generating from sweat,” he says. “There is no need to drink significantly more than tha...

Fat fish put obesity on the hook

...model, we are a step closer to temporarily turning off or diminishing the fat-storing mechanisms that were once crucial to the survival of our species. The zebrafish has become a model animal for the study of many diseases because it has a backbone and because its genetics have been well described. This ...

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