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Tag: "nucleus" at biology news

Prenatal Stress Keeps Infants, Toddlers up at Night, Study Says

...rve cells in the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus which act as a signaling system that tunes the bodys internal clock. This signaling system helps to properly regulate daily rhythms of waking, sleeping, even hunger that is, if its formation has not been disrupted. This could explain why sound ...

Cellular message movement captured on video

...dothelial cell reveal the motion toward the cell's nucleus of a message-carrying protein called paxillin (orange) in tandem with actin filaments (green). Credit: UC San Diego Scientists have captured on video the intracellular version of a postal delivery service. Reporting in the journal Biochemical and Bi...

Bacteria ferry nanoparticles into cells for early diagnosis, treatment

...nto the nucleus," he said. "Only when it is in the nucleus can the DNA produce proteins that perform specific functions and correct genetic disease conditions." When the cargo-carrying bacteria attach to the recipient cell they are engulfed by its outer membrane, forming "vesicles," or tiny spheres that a...

Mutating the entire genome

...e responsible for folding and packing DNA into the nucleus of each cell. Five percent to 50 percent of DNA is considered useless junk, “depending on who you ask, although probably at least half of the ‘junk’ DNA is going to end up having a pretty important function,” Capecchi says. Capecchi is known ...

Surprising origin of cell's internal highways

...s" must be anchored at a structure near the cell's nucleus called the centrosome or microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). From the MTOC, the growing microtubules launch out in all directions to the cell's periphery. Their rapid assembly and disassembly helps transport proteins throughout the cell and gen...

Gene therapy study shows safety and statistically significant improvement in Parkinson's disease

...mic acid decarboxylase or “GAD”) to the subthalmic nucleus (STN) of the brain. In Parkinson’s disease, STN activity is abnormally increased, largely due to a deficit in GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Increasing GAD causes more GABA to be synthesized, thus ...

DNA repair proteins monitored at double-strand break

...ould better control when the enzyme moves into the nucleus and cleaves the DNA. The team then used a biochemical technique called chromatin immunoprecipitation to collect and identify repair proteins and show where each one bound to the DNA. ...

DNA-damage test could aid drug development

...dy for this because such cells normally lose their nucleus during the last stage of red cell formation, and D...y, dividing four or five times before losing their nucleus and becoming immature red blood cells. Shuga then studied the way these developing cells reacted ...

Discovery of 'master switch' for the communication process between chloroplast and nuclei of plants

...ding of how chloroplasts communicate with a cell’s nucleus when stresses such as drought, heat, salinity or light become too great on the organism. A research team that includes Shai Koussevitzky, a research associate in the University of Nevada, Reno’s College of Agriculture, Biotechnology and Natural Res...

In obesity, brain becomes 'unaware' of fat

...te and energy expenditure accordingly. The arcuate nucleus in the brain’s hypothalamus, known as the ARH, is a major site of leptin sensing, harboring neurons that control appetite. More than 60 percent of American adults are now overweight or obese, and obesity prevalence in both adults and children is g...

Scripps research study shows humans and plants share common regulatory pathway

...n found in yeasts, plants, and mammals in both the nucleus and the cytosol. It functions in several biological processes through interaction with different multi-protein complexes. A large body of evidence also suggests that the protein plays a role in regulating pathogen resistance in plants. Various geneti...

How appetite-stimulating brain cells work overtime during fasting

...In mice that were fasted for 24 hours, the arcuate nucleus showed an increase in the "DII" enzyme's activity and local thyroid production, in parallel with increased UCP2 activity. This fasting-induced, T3-mediated UCP2 activation resulted in mitochondrial proliferation in the neurons, an event that was ...

Synthetic peptide targets latent papilloma virus infections

...form of a circular DNA plasmid that nestles in the nucleus of the cell and makes use of the cellular machiner...r cells, where they again take up residence in the nucleus as latent viral DNA. The viral plasmids turn into infectious viruses only in the top, differentiated...

Renegade RNA -- Clues to cancer and normal growth

...plans to force other microRNAs and siRNAs into the nucleus to turn off specific sets of genes. Mendell's team is actively hunting for additional hidden microRNA elements that control other aspects of their behavior in cells. They also are curious to figure out what miR-29b is doing in the nucleus. Becau...

Scientists clone mice from adult skin stem cells

...i took unfertilized mouse oocytes and replaced the nucleus of each oocyte with a nucleus from these adult skin stem cells. A main hurdle in nuclear transfer with adult cells has been it...

Yale biologists 'trick' viruses into extinction

...urface, but it then requires functions of the cell nucleus to reproduce. Current anti-HIV therapies are desig...s that have CD4 molecules on their surface, but no nucleus for virus reproduction. Mature red blood cells could fill the bill, because they lack a nucleus and ...

Erectile dysfunction in diabetes is due to selective defect in the brain

... The researchers focused on the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, located in the brain, an integration center between the central and peripheral nervous systems. The site is involved in numerous functions, including erectile function and sexual behavior, and is a primary site within the f...

Inflammation may play role in metastasis of prostate cancer

... which IKKa is activated, allowing it to enter the nucleus of the cancer cell, repressing Maspin. IKKa is a key linchpin in the pathway that turns off the Maspin gene and activates the metastatic program. The new results also support the view that RANK ligand is a general promoter of prostate, and possibly...

Protein found to shield pancreatic cancer cells from self-destruction

.... In apoptosis, the cells die via damage to their nucleus and DNA, with other cellular organelles preserved. Autophagy kills by degrading those other organelles while sparing the nucleus. Mehta's lab reported in a Cancer Research paper last September that TG2 overexpression also activates a protein calle...

Mitochondrial genes move to the nucleus -- but it's not for the sex

...virons to take up residence in a large and chaotic nucleus has long stumped evolutionary biologists, but Indi...drion could be separated from partner genes in the nucleus -- in the production of eggs or pollen, via meiosis. But the mating system determines whether or not...

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