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Tag: "nuclear" at biology news

Molecular biology fills gaps in knowledge of bat evolution

... DNA sequencing, analyzed data from portions of 17 nuclear genes from representatives of all bat families. Their results support the hypothesis that the group of large fruit-eating bats from the tropics, that fly mostly during the day - known to biologists as megabats - emerged from four major lineages of s...

Cytoplasm affects the number of vertebrae in carp-goldfish clones

...plasm of goldfish, were virtually identical to the nuclear donor species, Cyprinus carpio, in appearance and in most physical traits. The number of vertebrae in the clones, however, was in the range of the recipient species, Carassius auratus. Yong-Hua Sun, Shang-Ping Chen, Ya-Ping Wang, Wei Hu, and Zuo-Ya...

Novel Enzyme Shows Potential As An Anti-HIV Target

...ymes caused Tat acetylation, only one, SIRT1, is a nuclear enzyme, like Tat, suggesting that SIRT1 might work similarly in living cells. Ott and colleagues went on to show that transcription via Tat occurs in the presence of SIRT1, but not when SIRT1’s catalytic center is removed. Experiments using cells ta...

Mitochondrial DNA mutations play significant role in prostate cancer

...s(PNAS). Mitochondrial DNA, which is separate from nuclear DNA, is foundin the hundreds of mitochondria located in the cytoplasm outside ofeach cell's nucleus. The mitochondria often are called the "powerhouse"of the cell because they produce about 90 percent of the body's energy.John A. Petros, MD, associat...

Spider Venom Could Yield Eco-Friendly Insecticides

...he University of Connecticut Health Center. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, King and his colleagues have determined the three-dimensional structures of specific neurotoxins from the funnel-web spider -- toxins that either paralyze insects or send their nervous systems into overdrive. Ki...

Scientists document complex genomic events leading to the birth of new genes

...RanBP2. RanBP2 is the largest protein found at the nuclear pore complex, helping to regulate nucleic acid and...trast to RanBP2, which is found exclusively at the nuclear envelope, this RGP-family protein was detected in discrete cytoplasmic locations, thereby confirming...

Nano-Probes Allow an Inside Look at Cell Nuclei

...els. This could give biologists a ringside seat to nuclear processes that span several hours or days, such as... there," says Chen. First, they had to breach the nuclear membrane, which has pores that are only about 20 nanometers wide. To fit through these tiny slits, C...

Opposing fat metabolism pathways triggered by a single gene

... Central players in the regulatory network are the nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), which are transcription ...ology, Keith Yamamoto and colleagues show that the nuclear hormone receptor nhr-49 controls two different aspects of fat metabolism, which interact to form a f...

Use of PET can reduce, may eliminate more strenuous drug development trials with animals

...d Uwe Haberkorn, M.D., both with the department of nuclear medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Ge...d Jin-Young Paik, M.S., all with the department of nuclear medicine, Samsung Medical Center, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Korea; Takashi...

Epstein-Barr virus protein crucial to its role in blood cancers

...ence of this viral protein ?called EBNA3C (for EBV nuclear antigen) ?the cell cycle of the usually quiescent human B cells gets a jump start, which ultimately initiates uncontrolled growth. EBV, a member of the herpesvirus family and one of the most common human viruses, plays a role in cancers such as lymp...

Defensins neutralize anthrax toxin

...ence of this viral protein ?called EBNA3C (for EBV nuclear antigen) ?the cell cycle of the usually quiescent human B cells gets a jump start, which ultimately initiates uncontrolled growth. EBV, a member of the herpesvirus family and one of the most common human viruses, plays a role in cancers such as lymp...

Fleshing out the genome

...ensis--of key interest to DOE for its potential in nuclear and heavy metal waste remediation--were considered as hypothetical. This work identified 538 of these genes that expressed functional proteins and messenger RNA, accounting for a third of the hypothetical genes. They enlisted analytic software to sco...

Transgenic plants remove more selenium from polluted soil than wild plants, new tests show

...s -- such as modifying chloroplast DNA rather than nuclear DNA -- will eventually reduce the need for such constant monitoring. Since chloroplast DNA is maternally inherited, there is little risk of pollen transfer, said Terry. Terry said it's worth pursuing methods of improving phytoremediation because the...

50-year-old Mystery Solved: Protein Tags Regulate Key Ion Channel

...ess called sumoylation, previously associated with nuclear proteins, is active and essential outside the nucl...ntil now its 60-or-so known targets were primarily nuclear proteins, mostly involved in gene transcription. "The findings expand the influence of SUMO-related ...

Researchers rein in regulatory RNAs

...tudy implies that some classes of poly(A)-negative nuclear RNA may have important biological functions." Among these functions may be the regulation of gene expression on a domain level, such as that which has been documented for several imprinted loci. Antisense transcripts have been shown to alter the met...

Nanoparticles offer new hope for detection and treatment

...make these particles so that they can be seen with nuclear imaging, CT scanning and ultrasound imaging," Lanza says. In addition, the particles can be loaded with a wide variety of drugs that will then be directed to growing tumors. "When drug-bearing nanoparticles also contain an imaging agent, you can get...

PET/CT can identify new cancer lesions at early stage, allowing for prompt treatment

...said SNM member Richard L. Wahl, M.D., director of nuclear medicine/PET at the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science. PET/CT scans from nearly 2,000 cancer patients over a two-year period were evaluated retrospectively, explained Wahl, who was one of the first in the world and th...

Biochemists report discovery of structure of major piece of telomerase; implications for cancer

...ermined the structure with Theimer and Blois using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Mutations in the RNA are associated with the inherited diseases aplastic anemia and dyskeratosis congenita, which frequently are manifested by progressive bone-marrow failure. "When you look at the sequence on...

Measuring Enzymes At End Of Cancer Pathway Predicts Outcome Of Tarceva, Taxol

... interfere with assembly of the spindle that pulls nuclear chromosomes apart during cell division, Ueno and his colleagues have recently reported that increased activity of CDK1 correlated with a cell's sensitivity to Taxol. The CDK enzyme plays a role in cell division, and researchers believe that it funct...

Study uncovers bacteria's worst enemy

...eria to remediate environmental contamination from nuclear waste and processing activities may depend more up...nuclides. In fact, the bacteria's worst enemy in a nuclear waste site may not be the radioactive elements, but rather, the other toxic metals that might also b...

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