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Tag: "neurotransmitters" at biology news

Clam embryo study shows pollutant mixture adversely affects nerve cell development

...tion of antibodies and dyes toshow the presence of neurotransmitters in single neurons. "We'veactually taken superlative three-dimensional pictures where we go rightthrough the embryo," says Reinisch. The sequence of images yields athree-dimensional representation of the embryos' developing neurons.Reinisch and compan...

Study identifies predictors of HIV drug resistance in patients beginning triple therapy

...tion of antibodies and dyes toshow the presence of neurotransmitters in single neurons. "We'veactually taken superlative three-dimensional pictures where we go rightthrough the embryo," says Reinisch. The sequence of images yields athree-dimensional representation of the embryos' developing neurons.Reinisch and compan...

New research questions basic tenet of neuron function

...organelles called synaptic vesicles that sequester neurotransmitters and release them when needed into the synapse, or ... It is known that synaptic vesicles release their neurotransmitters in two different "modes" ?one when the neuron is stimulated and actively relaying a message, and the...

Researchers discover molecular mechanism that desensitizes us to cold

...ese proteins are involved." Many signals, such as neurotransmitters and growth factors are known to catalyze the breakdown of PIP2. Now that researchers know how PIP2 interacts with this large class of membrane proteins, they can begin to look out how these signals work and what effects they are having in various are...

Brain-injury rehabilitation depends on acetylcholine circuitry

...hat brain circuitry that depends on other types of neurotransmitters such as noradrenalin, dopamine, or serotonin have also been implicated in cortical plasticity and may also be manipulated to aid recovery after such injury. Publishing in Neuron, Volume 46, Number 2, April 21, 2005, pages 173?79. http://www.neuron.o...

Researchers make surprise discovery that some neurons can transmit three signals at once

...could fire a simultaneous three-punch salvo ?three neurotransmitters bursting out of a single cell -- it was a finding ...re Neuroscience, is that by definition these three neurotransmitters are seemingly at odds with each other. One, glutamate, is a textbook excitatory neurotransmitter; wh...

Discovery of New Dopamine Action May Yield Alternative Psychiatric Drugs

...orders, the researchers said. "We've thought that neurotransmitters relay messages to the brain in two speeds: fast an...switches on the surfaces of neurons that recognize neurotransmitters and translate their signals into a cellular response. Dopamine exerts its functions in the brain by ...

The synapse is a shotgun

...a shotgun than a rifle when it comes to firing the neurotransmitters involved in neuronal communication. The textbook view of the synapse describes it as a place where rifle-like volleys of neurotransmitter are launched from one defined region of the sending neuron to another defined target on the receiving neuron. I...

UIC researchers show protein routes messages in nerve cells

...nk-of-the-eye speeds by squirting chemicals called neurotransmitters across tiny gaps called synapses to awaiting message receptors. But lots of different receptors and neurotransmitters work simultaneously. Which goes where to send the proper message? Research reported in the July 20 ...

Grasshopper love songs give insight into sensory tuning

...ons, each triggering others by launching bursts of neurotransmitters at targets on receiving neurons to produce nerve impulses in those targets. Neurons adjust the strength of those connections adaptively, to amplify or suppress connections. Some four decades ago, a general principle called the "efficient coding hypot...

Grabbing addiction by the tail

...ne neuron triggers activity in a neighbor by using neurotransmitters such as glutamate. "This is the 'go' signal," said Wang. "The receiving cell uses glutamate receptors on its surface to listen to the signal. But after repeated abuse of a drug, cells in the nucleus accumbens internalize glutamate receptors, compro...

Penn study finds direct role for glial cells in brain cross-talk

... that send out and receive chemical signals called neurotransmitters across a space called the synapse. This process results in transmission of a nerve impulse. Historically, the glial cell or astrocyte was considered to be a support cell and to play no active role in regulating nerve impulse transmission. However, r...

Researchers show how air pollution can cause heart disease

...on in the arteries, the researchers tested how the neurotransmitters serotonin and acetylcholine affected the aortic arches of PM2.5-exposed mice differently than those of controls. The arteries taken from exposed mice were less elastic than the control group, constricting more in the presence of serotonin and relaxin...

'Perception' gene tracked humanity's evolution, scientists say

...ty." Prodynorphin is a precursor molecule of the neurotransmitters alpha-endorphin, dynorphin A, and dynorphin B, collectively called opioids because their action is similar to stimulatory effects caused by the drug opium. The notion that humans are more perceptive than other primates would hardly be news. But the...

Stanford study of owls finds link in brain between sight and sound

...o determine what mechanisms are involved and which neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter receptors are used in signaling attention. "Relatively nothing is known about how the brain increases and decreases signaling," Winkowski said. "We want to discover the cellular mechanisms of how attention works." "Once we lear...

Dying of excitement

.... To avoid this, brain cells must sop up unneeded neurotransmitters from the synapse through membrane-bound transporters. If these transporters fail, neurons and other brain cells get excited to death-- a phenomenon that may contribute to brain damage during stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Indeed, brain deteriorati...

Long-term changes in experience cause neurons to sprout new long-lasting connections

...ses, which are the junctions between neurons where neurotransmitters are released. The researchers induced a long-term change in the sensory experience of mice by trimming the animals' whiskers, selectively cutting some but leaving neighboring whiskers, in a chessboard pattern. Over time, this selective grooming caus...

Nicotine exposure during development leads to hearing problems

... terms of brain development." Chemicals known as neurotransmitters act as message carriers between cells and bind with receptors on the cells' surfaces, much like a key fits into the lock. If the receptors are damaged, they can no longer bind properly with the neurotransmitter. Nicotine shares a receptor with the ne...

Research links 'ecstasy' to survival of key movement-related cells in brain

...that prompts the secretion of large amounts of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain. This secretion can lead to prolonged periods of activity, hallucinations and euphoria. Before the United States banned it in 1985, MDMA was tested as a possible adjunct in psychotherapy. In 2001, t...

How brain injury leads to seizures, memory problems

...er in maintaining a balance between two systems of neurotransmitters in the brain: the glutamate system and the gamma-aminobutyric acid system, abbreviated GABA(A). Glutamate stimulates neurons to fire, while GABA(A) inhibits that activity. "When lower levels of the KCC2 transporter weaken the dentate gyrus's ability ...

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