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Tag: "neurons" at biology news

Researchers identify protein pathway involved in Parkinson disease development

... central nervous system resulting from the loss of neurons in the brain that produce dopamine. This lowering of dopamine leads to decreased stimulation of the brain's motor cortex. Although scientists have not known the exact cause of the loss of these dopamine-producing neurons, they believe it is related...

Turn-ons and turn-offs for neurons

... and experience, touch, smell or fear, millions of neurons in our brain becomes active. These nerve cells com...pressed in neurons, there is now little doubt that neurons respond to challenging environments by adjusting the expression of genes for appropriate brain funct...

A first -- Hebrew University scientist observes brain cell development in 'real time'

...s succeeded in observing in vivo the generation of neurons in the brain of a mammal. Dr. Adi Mizrahi of the...sions of the neuron that spread out to reach other neurons and serve as the points of communication between the neurons. The model employed by Dr. Mizrahi ...

How brain pacemakers erase diseased messages

...n to showing how the therapy works, their model of neurons in action also revealed that stimulation delivered at too slow a pace fails to keep bad information at bay. Indeed, slower pulses can actually add to problematic bursts, they showed. The model's findings closely parallel the clinical responses of ...

Detecting cold, feeling pain: Study reveals why menthol feels fresh

...ene that synthesizes the receptor, both in sensory neurons in cell culture and in mice. The cells in culture were unresponsive to cooling agents, including menthol. The genetically engineered mice did not discriminate between warm and cold surfaces until the temperature dropped to extremes. "It's been kno...

Human stem cell treatment restores motor function in paralyzed rats

...can result in the death of specialized spinal cord neurons called spinal inhibitory neurons, leading to irrev... but there has been a selective loss of inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord. Since these cells are necessary for coordinated motor activity, our research ai...

Mice with a migraine show signs of brain damage

...lly involves a burst of intense activity among the neurons on the surface of the brain, followed by a gradual... nerve cells swell and begin to disintegrate, with neurons shedding important connections known as dendritic spines ?the tiny extensions of an individual neuro...

Newborn neurons like to hang with the 'in' crowd

...ing connections between brain cells but as the new neurons mature over time they get emboldened and muscle out the old guys. "Adding new neurons could be a very problematic process if newborn cells would make connections all over the place," exp...

Left-right wiring determined by neural communication in the embryonic worm

...eft-right configurations of two types of olfactory neurons are established during development. In a study rel...cules and electrical signals -- that allow growing neurons on the left and right to communicate with each other, a system that dissolves as the worm develops. ...

Fast and slow -- How the spinal cord controls the speed of movement

Using a state-of-the-art technique to map neurons in the spinal cord of a larval zebrafish, Cornell ... the March 1 issue of the journal Nature, maps how neurons in the bottom of the fish’s spinal cord become active during slow movements, while cells further up ...

Deconstructing brain wiring, one neuron at a time

...ether a "wiring diagram" ?a map of how billions of neurons are interconnected. Now, researchers at the Salk I... targeted nerve cell just once to identify all the neurons to which it is directly connected. "We've wanted to do this for a very long time and finally fo...

It's never too late to get it back! Aging interrupted

...ous, and to stimulate repair in damaged cells like neurons and heart cells. Low calorie diets drive the body to replace and repair damaged cells. This process usually slows down as we age, but low calorie diets make the body re-synthesise and turn over more cells ?a situation associated with youth and good ...

Researchers develop marker that identifies energy-producing centers in nerve cells

... part of the brain to another. Mitochondria in the neurons function like cellular powerhouses to produce thos... we could apply the ability to see mitochondria in neurons to the research of those diseases," says Dr. Kristian. This mouse model could also be used to st...

2 brains -- 1 thought

... computational power. Already in a network of 1000 neurons (where each neuron can be connected to any other) ...re are a million possible contacts between any two neurons and consequently an unimaginably large number of possible networks. Each combination can have either...

Brain's reward circuit activity ebbs and flows with a woman's hormonal cycle

...ls from these areas to the cortex. Reward circuit neurons harbor receptors for estrogen and progesterone. However, how these hormones influence reward circuit activity in humans has remained unclear. To pinpoint hormone effects on the reward circuit, Berman and colleagues scanned the brain activity of ...

A 'traffic light' for neurons means 'go' for improving brain research

...t function." Knowing the effects that different neurons have could ultimately help researchers figure out ... ChR2 is derived from an algae that makes affected neurons more active when exposed to blue light. Deisseroth and collaborators first showed this in a paper in...

Mechanism of nicotine's learning effects explored

...y analyzing the electrophysiological properties of neurons in slices of mouse brain, as they treated the slic... action. Specifically, the researchers studied the neurons of the prefrontal cortex, which contain centers for learning and memory. Researchers had known th...

Glucose triggers brain cell death in rats after hypoglycemic coma

...use hypoglycemic coma, resulting in destruction of neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, which are ...usly, it had been assumed that oxidative stress in neurons was initiated primarily by mitochondria, which process oxygen for energy within cells. The paper...

In obesity, brain becomes 'unaware' of fat

... ARH, is a major site of leptin sensing, harboring neurons that control appetite. More than 60 percent of American adults are now overweight or obese, and obesity prevalence in both adults and children is growing dramatically. When scientists first discovered leptin, it was heralded as a potential obesity...

Enhancing activity of marijuana-like chemicals in brain helps treat

...pulsive disorder and addiction. The activity of neurons in the striatum relies on the chemical dopamine. ...g studied how the communication between different neurons is modified by experience and disease. In their examination of two types of mouse striatum cells, K...

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