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Tag: "neuronal" at biology news

Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

...plishment for the fields of structural biology and neuronal cell signaling.” Besides substance addiction, Stevens pointed to epilepsy, schizophrenia and depression as targets for improved drugs that could result from the study’s findings. The study provides the first detailed look at part of the mouse nic...

Brain holds clues to bipolar disorder

...that bipolar disorder arises from abnormalities in neuronal plasticity cascades – the complex machinery inside of nerve cells that regulates numerous processes inside the body. Using animal and cellular models, Dr. Manji and colleagues at NIMH showed that disruptions in these pathways resulted in many of the ...

Turn-ons and turn-offs for neurons

...n, learning and disease are all believed to change neuronal gene expression by mechanisms involving gene acces...use-and-effect relationship between gene activity, neuronal physiology, and animal behavior. Hence, this new research is an important step in both the developme...

Human stem cell treatment restores motor function in paralyzed rats

... Marsala’s previous work in rat models using human neuronal stem cells, published in October 2004 in the Europ...he spinal cords of rats that received transplanted neuronal cells. Current treatment for debilitating muscle spasticity is continuous systemic or spinal drug...

Does amateur boxing cause brain damage?

...t athletes. The study found high CSF levels of neuronal and glial markers suggestive of brain damage after a fight. A particular marker for neuronal damage, neurofilament light (NFL), was four times higher in boxers within 10 days of the fight as co...

How the brain's backup system compensates for stroke

...In the initial stages of adaptive compensation for neuronal interference, the adult brain exploits pre-established patterns of functional specialization. When a key node in an information-processing circuit is impaired, healthy cortical networks can flexibly reconfigure processing in a way that is rapid, func...

How to steer a moving cell

...ng was that many of the proteins identified in the neuronal network, the ‘wiring diagram?that controls early development of neural networks in the embryo, are also found to control the movement of normal and cancerous cells," said Klemke. "This is apparently a fundamental, evolutionarily conserved process i...

Newborn neurons like to hang with the 'in' crowd

...s been unclear. "If you have hopes that one day neuronal stem cells can replace damaged neurons in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease you have to ensure that these cells make proper connections, form functional synapses and integrate into the rest of the brain," says post...

New Brandeis research sheds light on memory by erasing it

... The research involved electrically stimulating neuronal synapses to strengthen them, a process known as long-term potentiation (LTP). This process has served as a model system for studying memory. CaMKII has been a leading candidate as a memory molecule because it is persistently activated after LTP induc...

Deconstructing brain wiring, one neuron at a time

...e difficult to unravel because dozens of different neuronal types are entangled within a precisely connected network, and even neighboring neurons of the same type differ in connectivity and function. So, researchers have been trying to figure out the pattern of connections typical of a type of neuron, to...

Rare cell prevents rampant brain activity

... new mechanism controlling how the brain keeps its neuronal activity in check. The human brain consists of around a hundred million nerve cells linked together by around ten billion contact junctions called synapses. The activity of this extremely complex network is regulated through a dynamic balance betwe...

Researchers develop marker that identifies energy-producing centers in nerve cells

...ker, we had no way to identify the mitochondria in neuronal cells from those in glial cells," says the study's...wer certain questions, such as to what extent does neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to Parkinson's or Alzheimer's. And, in a general way, we could...

2 brains -- 1 thought

... This process depends on the exact dynamics of the neuronal activity. When the brain receives sensory input, c...s, it processes information encoded in a series of neuronal impulses in different nerve cells. Although no two people have the same brain, they can still share ...

A 'traffic light' for neurons means 'go' for improving brain research

... fix those neurons. Conceivably, direct control of neuronal activity with light could someday become a therapy in itself. A neural traffic light To selectively take control of neurons, the researchers used a virus to insert genes for producing light-sensitive proteins into cells of interest. The gene ...

Mechanism of nicotine's learning effects explored

...f how nicotine adjusts the signaling properties of neuronal wiring to enhance memory. Such signaling propertie...ntal cortex. Interneurons are the way-stations for neuronal impulses, passing neuronal signals from one neuron to another. ...

'Guardian of the genome' protein found to underlie skin tanning

...o tan during sunlight exposure, it may also affect neuronal circuits," Fisher says. "These proteins may provide an explicit link between the regulation of tanning and of mood. It raises the question of whether p53-mediated induction of beta-endorphin is involved in sun-seeking behavior, which often increases ...

How appetite-stimulating brain cells work overtime during fasting

...y importance of UCP in the brain and its effect on neuronal activity," Diano said. "It's how neurons 'learn' that food is missing, and it keeps them ready to eat when food is introduced." The mechanism involved is very similar to the one that regulates core body temperature in peripheral body tissues, Dian...

3 proteins may play important role in nerve-cell repair

...dicate that these three proteins improve growth of neuronal extensions even in the presence of inhibitory molecules, and we are very keen to find out whether the approach can be translated in preclinical animal models of stroke or spinal cord injury." ...

Stem cells act through multiple mechanisms to benefit mice with neurodegenerative disease

... "Our studies suggest that functional neuronal replacement can be complemented and, under some conditions, eclipsed by a range of other stem cell actions that nevertheless exert a number of critical stabilizing forces," said Dr. Snyder, director of Stem Cells and Regeneration at Burnham. "In fact...

Angelman syndrome deficits rescued in mice

...horylation). Because of CaMKII's prominent role in neuronal function, Weeber suspected that this might account for many of the neurological deficits seen in Angelman syndrome children. Fortuitously, one of Weeber's colleagues ?Ype Elgersma, Ph.D., at Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, Netherlands ?had cr...

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