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Tag: "myelin" at biology news

Alcohol's effects on gene expression in the central nervous system

...gnaling (which modulates nerve cell activity), and myelin structure (which is needed for communication between nerve cells)," said McBride. "Gene expression profiling has also been used to identify chromosomes and chromosomal regions that influence alcohol drinking and response to alcohol." # Intracranial ...

New component of the 'brakes' on nerve regeneration found

...s' response to the "braking" molecules produced by myelin and encouraged neuron growth. "Given the limited ...re than one TNF receptor member may be involved in myelin inhibition adds a new level of complexity to designing therapeutic strategies for treating CNS injur...

Infants With Rare Genetic Disease Saved by Cord Blood Stem Cells

...dren are missing an enzyme critical to forming the myelin sheath that protects developing brain cells from damage. Moreover, the findings add to the growing body of evidence showing that cord blood can save children with other fatal "lysosomal storage diseases," each of which stems from a specific enzyme de...

Infants with Rare Genetic Disease Saved By Cord Blood Stem Cells

...dren are missing an enzyme critical to forming the myelin sheath that protects developing brain cells from damage. Moreover, the findings add to the growing body of evidence showing that cord blood can save children with other fatal "lysosomal storage diseases," each of which stems from a specific enzyme de...

Stem cell treatment improves mobility after spinal cord injury

...cal conduction in the central nervous system. When myelin is stripped away through disease or injury, sensor... In the rats treated seven days after the injury, myelin tissue formed as the oligodendrocyte cells wrapped around damaged neurons in the spinal cord. Within...

Combination therapy leads to partial recovery from spinal cord injury in rats

...that producing a nerve-insulating substance called myelin can lead to functional improvements in animals wit...jury. Previous studies have shown that the loss of myelin around nerve fibers contributes to the impaired function after a spinal cord injury. However, until ...

Investigating 'brain shrinkage' in alcoholics

...trol the manufacture of structural proteins of the myelin was reduced in the alcoholic cases. In addition, t...ges likely alter the structure and function of the myelin sheath and ultimately the conduction of nerve impulses." - It is important for people who abuse alc...

Discovery of T-cell 'traffic control' boosts new drug promise

...ing disease in which the body's T cells attack the myelin coating of nerve cells and disrupt their function. Neither Goetzl nor Rosen is involved in the on-going clinical trials of the new drugs and neither has financial ties to the companies that manufacture them. Controlling this process with drugs offer...

Researchers find molecule that inhibits regrowth of spinal nerve cells

...d cells, the researchers found that a component of myelin ?a substance that normally insulates and stabilize... blocks the ability of nerve cells to grow through myelin that is released when the spinal cord is damaged. While other myelin components also block nerve gro...

OHSU researchers discover potential mechanism to repair brain damage linked to Multiple Sclerosis

... that the tremors were associated with the loss of myelin sheaths on nerve cells, very similar to the myelin loss associated with MS and other neurological diseases, as well as in premature infants. In additio...

Molecular Partners Required For Appropriate Neuronal Gene Repression

... that the tremors were associated with the loss of myelin sheaths on nerve cells, very similar to the myelin loss associated with MS and other neurological diseases, as well as in premature infants. In additio...

Dendritic cells offer new therapeutic target for drugs to treat MS and other autoimmune disease

...osis, a disease that causes T-cells to destroy the myelin protein sheath around nerves in the central nervou... mouse model, investigators found that more of the myelin sheath was preserved in mice treated with CEP-701 than those not treated. Small cautions that mass...

Scientists discover the molecular switch for nerve cells' insulating jelly rolls

...he team identified a gene called neuregulin as the myelin signal. This signal directs Schwann cells, the ner...cellular architects, to build elaborate sheaths of myelin around the axons of nerve cells. Axons are the long cable-like arms of nerve cells that send message...

Cell therapy slows progression of an inherited neurological disease; Improves motor skills in mice

...f an enzyme and causes loss of the white matter or myelin protecting nerve fibers. Without myelin, nerves ca...e in Milan, Italy, transplanted cells that produce myelin into the brains of newborn MLD mice. The researchers found that the transplanted myelin-producing ce...

Imaging study links key genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease to myelin breakdown

...chiatry and add to a growing body of evidence that myelin breakdown is a key contributor to the onset of Alz...ic testing coupled with non-invasive evaluation of myelin breakdown through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may prove useful in assessing treatments for prev...

Stem cells found in adult skin can be transplanted and function in mouse models of disease

...he central nervous systems of mice that don't have myelin in their brains. While the research occurred in mouse models, some of their data indicate that human SKPs can do the same thing. "Previous work has only dealt with SKPs in culture and their more basic biology. Now we have shown that SKPs can make at...

Selectively blocking inflammatory signals may protect mice from MS

...nterferon levels were also associated with loss of myelin sheaths around nerve connections and unprotected a...y studying the use of stem cells to repair damaged myelin sheaths, but in the long term those stem cells would be vulnerable to ongoing immune-mediated damage...

'Smart' genetic therapy helps the body to heal itself

...erited single-gene disease involving damage to the myelin sheath, which insulates nerve cells in the brain. Using a mouse model of the disease, Dr Pujol and colleagues found that a protein called ALDR (very similar to the ALD protein mutated in the disease) could, if over-expressed, compensate for the lo...

Epstein-Barr virus might kick-start multiple sclerosis

...active immune cells trigger the destruction of the myelin sheathing that insulates nerve cells. "The broadened response of the T cells could lead them to recognize and attack cells they aren't supposed to, like brain cells," said Münz. This process, called molecular mimicry, is seen in other autoimmune diso...

Pregnancy hormone key to repairing nerve cell damage

..., is directly responsible for the formation of new myelin in the brains and spinal cords of pregnant mice. F...S-like lesions were injected with prolactin, their myelin was also repaired. The research was based on evidence that MS, which is more common in women than...

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