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Tag: "mutating" at biology news

BRCA1 causes ovarian cancer through indirect, biochemical route

...hat Dubeau and his colleagues found was that while mutating the BRCA1 gene in granulosa cells did indeed give rise to ovarian tumors, those tumors did not arise in granulosa cells. Instead, when the tumor cells were analyzed, they were found to be epithelial cells very similar to those found in human ovarian ...

Critical step traced in anthrax infection

...ed that the phi-clamp was critical to infection by mutating the region and thereby blocking translocation of the toxin proteins. These recent experimental results extend and explain a 1999 discovery by the Collier lab identifying a set of mutations in protective antigen that prevent translocation, some of wh...

Researcher gets NSF grant to create mutant maize lines

... out the function of genes they jump into, thereby mutating the genetic makeup. What is unique about this collection is that a single gene will be disrupted in each line while the 50,000 or so other genes are kept exactly the same from seed to seed. A missing gene may alter processes in ways that are easily v...

Fluorescing lab worms signal longer life spans

...on authored a milestone paper in 1988 showing that mutating a single gene in roundworms could double their life span -- the first evidence that the lifespan of an animal could be increased by genetic alteration. Since then, researchers around the world have been tinkering with proteins and genes of C. elegans...

Harmless virus may hold key to more effective HIV drug discovery

...al molecules they have discovered. By constantly mutating into new variations, HIV, in particular, has been ...rican Chemical Society. "Viruses are clever about mutating to defeat the best efforts of chemists and biologists," said Weiss, an assistant professor of chemis...

New technique could alter field of mouse genetics

...eference for genes. This bodes well for its use in mutating genes and for identifying unrecognized genes in places of the genome that have been especially difficult to sequence. Furthermore, the markers it carries make it easy to find. In Xu's lab, the jumping gene carried red fluorescent protein and an enzym...

Trio of plant genes prevent 'too many mouths'

...erial, or biomass, suitable for producing fuel. By mutating all three genes ?essentially putting them all out of action ?the researchers got dwarf plants an inch high instead of the normal 1½ feet. Surprisingly the plants also were so densely covered with stomata that most stomata were touching each other. T...

Cells direct membrane traffic by channel width

...to a glycerol channel, or the other way around, by mutating amino acids that line the pore of the channel, but they have failed." The E-coli proteins studied were AqpZ, a water channel, and GlpF, a glycerol channel. Side-by-side in computer-generated images the channels appear virtually identical. The Beckma...

Technique offers new view of dynamic biological landscape

...ion of a gene to protein, reducing its lifespan by mutating the mRNA message lowers the amount of protein the cell can produce. The group called this approach "decreased abundance by mRNA perturbation" (DAmP). "The DAmP technique gave us a way of lowering the abundance of a target gene's messenger RNA while...

UCLA scientists discover immune response to HIV differs, even in identical twins

... The virus tries to escape that immune response by mutating and changing shape. The twins' targeting of the HIV was remarkably similar 17 years after infection yet their overall TCR characteristics were highly divergent. The finding, demonstrates that the interaction between their immune systems and the viru...

Nanotechnology may find disease before it starts

...hat a few cells in the area may be on the verge of mutating and growing out of control. "The long-term goal is to use this technology to improve our ability to identify very early cancers and other diseases," said Jun Liu, a study co-author and an assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Ohio State U...

Enzyme crystal structure reveals 'unexpected' genome repair functions

...e mechanism that removes DNA lesions caused by the mutating effects of sunlight (ultraviolet light) and toxic chemicals. In addition, NER is critical to the success of the anticancer drug cisplatin, since cisplatin works by initiating the process of DNA repair, in turn activating apoptosis or programmed cel...

What controls stickiness of 'smart' chromosomal glue

...archers experimented with yeast cells, selectively mutating the Rec8 subunit so that it could not be phosphorylated. They then studied how the cell's inability to phosphorylate Rec8 affected meiosis. Those experiments showed that phosphorylation is, indeed, important for governing the step-wise loss of cohesi...

Scientists resuscitate a 5 million-year-old retrovirus

...etrovirus--Phoenix--from the consensus sequence by mutating existing HERV-K(HML2) copies. In addition, the researchers showed that Phoenix could form particles capable of infecting mammalian cells in culture. Infectivity was very low, presumably because host cells have evolved mechanisms to resist uncon...

Scientists unveil piece of HIV protein that may be key to AIDS vaccine development

...n-fighting antibody. Unlike much of the constantly mutating virus, this protein component is stable and—more importantly, say the researchers—appears vulnerable to attack from this specific antibody, known as b12, that can broadly neutralize HIV. "Creating an HIV vaccine is one of the great scientific challe...

Angelman syndrome deficits rescued in mice

...ly developed a mouse model of Angelman syndrome by mutating this gene. But the finding was baffling, said Weeber, because UBE3A is a "housekeeping" gene, meaning that it broadly regulates cellular processes not particularly specific for any of the neurological deficits seen in these children. Specifically,...

Genetic pathways to curable and incurable forms of pancreatic cancer identified

...c cancer oncogene called Kras and then selectively mutating tumor-suppressor genes such as p53, p16 and Dpc4 in different combinations. In the mouse model, which Hingorani first developed while at the University of Pennsylvania, the combination of Kras and p53 led to the more deadly form of pancreatic duc...

Gene malfunctions cause schizophrenia, depression symptoms in mice

... researchers sought to explore the consequences of mutating a gene called "Disrupted in schizophrenia 1" (DISC1), which had been found in one family to be associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. The researchers' theory was that different mutant variations of DISC1 might have ...

Mutating the entire genome

...ity of Utah geneticists. They tested the method by mutating a gene involved in bone formation, resulting in sh...e developed a faster, less expensive technique for mutating those large, non-gene stretches of DNA. “Diseases are known to occur as a consequence of deleting...

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