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Tag: "motor" at biology news

St. Jude study solves mystery of mammalian ears

Protein motor in cochlea hair cells dominates the process of sou...eagues showed that a protein called prestin is the motor in mammalian outer hair cells triggers this contraction. And that is where the debate begins. While...

Math that powers spam filters used to understand how brain learns to move our muscles

...me time to anticipate what it needs to develop new motor skills. The engineers, from Johns Hopkins, MIT an... of the phenomena we observe in regard to learning motor movements,” says Shadmehr. Beyond possible use in helping stroke patients, the new tool might al...

Crammed with charged DNA, pressure rises inside virus

...full of its own DNA. The virus, phi29, has a tiny motor that pumps its DNA into the capsid—outer shell—dur...aser tweezers to measure the forces exerted by the motor as it pushes the DNA into the capsid. “The virus’ motor has to do mechanical work to overcom...

Penn researchers link cell's protein recycling systems

...urodegeneration in several mouse models, including motor neuron disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. They are also attempting to identify pharmacologic approaches to augmenting HDAC6 activity....

Researchers identify protein pathway involved in Parkinson disease development

...mine leads to decreased stimulation of the brain's motor cortex. Although scientists have not known the exact cause of the loss of these dopamine-producing neurons, they believe it is related to dysfunctional mitochondria and oxidative stress. Mitochondria are the cell's "power plants," which metabolize o...

Electric fish conduct electric duets in aquatic courtship

...cessfully in captivity) and identified nine common motor displays and 11 specific pulse sequences common to...urtship and mating. "Knowing the electrical and motor patterns during courtship allows for further exploration of such topics as mate choice and neural ba...

Scientists close in on missing carbon sink

...f what ultimately happens to the carbon emitted by motor vehicles, factories, deforestation, and other sources. Of the approximately 8 billion tons of carbon emitted each year, about 40 percent accumulates in the atmosphere and about 30 percent is absorbed by the oceans. Scientists believe that terrestrial...

New vaccine prevents CMV infection and disease in mice

...ymptoms such as hearing loss, mental retardation, motor or learning disabilities. Because the host’s natural immune system can protect from the disease but can’t rid the body of the virus, people remain infected and can become re-infected or infect others through saliva. “Children in day care settings...

Researchers use MRI to predict recovery after spinal cord injury

...d 21 women between the ages of 17 and 96. Complete motor and sensory SCI was seen in 26 patients, incomplet.... The majority of the patients had been injured in motor vehicle accidents. MRI exams were obtained within 24 to 48 hours of injury. The research team stu...

Human stem cell treatment restores motor function in paralyzed rats

...inal cord we can achieve a progressive recovery of motor function,” said Marsala. “This could some day pro...l cord,” said Marsala. “The spinal cord and brain motor centers are still partially connected, but there has been a selective loss of inhibitory neurons in ...

How the brain's backup system compensates for stroke

...s, and the left-hemisphere PMd is dominant in such motor control function. Researchers had known that after...rtant for learning new connections between eye and motor function, it "is particularly well placed to mediate learning of new motor strategies after brain da...

Anthrax paralyzes immune cells with lethal toxin, UF research shows

...n the mud. "Actin is important because it's the motor that causes neutrophils to move," said Southwick. "So it's like cutting the gas to the motor." Anthrax literally cuts the gas line. The toxin works like a pair of scissors, snipping off the ends of a key protein and preventing the transmission of ...

Danish researches solve virus puzzle

...ally unfolded. A crucial slip of the cellular motor In their investigations the researchers use a pseudoknot which is related to bird flu. When the ribosome encounters a pseudoknot it has to unravel the knot before the reading can proceed. During this process the ribosome sometimes slips backwards ...

A 'traffic light' for neurons means 'go' for improving brain research

...s to stop swimming while their genetically altered motor neurons were exposed to pulses of yellow light focused through a microscope. In some experiments, exposure to blue light caused the worms to wiggle in ways they weren't moving while unperturbed. When the lights were turned off, the worms resumed thei...

Action video games sharpen vision 20 percent

...layed Tetris, a game equally demanding in terms of motor control, but visually less complex. After about a month of near-daily gaming, the Tetris players showed no improvement on the test, but the Unreal Tournament players could tell which way the "T" was pointing much more easily than they had just a m...

Need oxygen? Cells know how to spend and save

...icient substitute that "is specialized to keep the motor running smoothly even as it begins to run out of gas," says Gregg Semenza, M.D., Ph.D., a professor of pediatrics and director of the vascular biology program in the Institute for Cell Engineering at Hopkins. "This is one way that cells maintain ener...

MIT model helps researchers 'see' brain development

... as the “central sulcus,?a fold that separates the motor cortex from the somatosensory cortex. Yu applied a technique developed by Fischl to perform this alignment. The second step involves modeling the folds of the brain mathematically in a way that allows the researchers to analyze their changes over...

'Marathon mice' elucidate little-known muscle type

...rgy-producing mitochondria they house. Myosins are motor proteins that consist of both "heavy" and "light" amino acid chains. While most muscles in mammals contain a mixture of slow- and fast-twitch fiber types, some muscle beds are enriched for one type or the other, Spiegelman said. However, adult ske...

When your brain talks, your muscles don't always listen

...he electrode was repositioned to sample from other motor units within the muscle. Knight and graduate st...re are steps we can take to preserve this critical motor capacity, according to Knight. "After power training with weights, we see an increase in firing r...

Stem cells act through multiple mechanisms to benefit mice with neurodegenerative disease

... the onset of symptoms was delayed, well-being and motor function was preserved, and lifespan was extended by >70%. The researchers discovered that their implanted neural stem cells, which migrated and integrated extensively throughout the brain, did much more than replace brain tissue destroyed...

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