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Tag: "molecule" at biology news

Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

...o virus-producing factories. In the case of HIV, a molecule called gp120 initially helps the virus lock onto i... plans to study FP-23 together with cholesterol, a molecule known to modulate the stiffness of cell membranes....

Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

... my opinion.” The researchers also found a water molecule deep in the receptor’s core – significant because ...e structure hold its shape, Chen said. The water molecule may enable the receptor to alter its shape in counterbalance to the bending hinge, said Chen, who ex...

Cells re-energize to come back from the brink of death

...g the cell’s mitochondria develop holes and leak a molecule called cytochrome c, which triggers the activity of enzymes called caspases. In turn, caspases trigger a series of events that kills the cell. Mitochondria are tiny structures that act as power plants to supply the cell with energy, but also hold the...

Brain inflammation may be friend, not foe, for Alzheimer's patients

... him pinpoint control over brain levels of a human molecule known as interleukin-1beta, a well-recognized mole...e realm of inflammation. IL-1 beta, a signaling molecule that promotes brain inflammation, was one of the first molecules that scientists found in higher lev...

Simulations unravel outer membrane transport mechanism

...tion in ways that would open up enough space for a molecule of vitamin B12 to pass through the barrel. (Click on the link below the image of the system to watch the results of the simulation.) A second simulation exerted a force near the center of gravity of the luminal domain, pulling it out of the barrel...

A new plant-bacterial symbiotic mechanism promising for crop applications

...the genes involved in producing the unknown signal molecule that plays the role of Nod factor, prompted the team’s hypothesis that a molecule similar to a plant hormone (4), cytokinin, could act in the mechanisms by triggering nodulation. The...

Largest synthetic gene ever built offers insights into anti-malarial drug resistance

...s can help pharmacologists and chemists redesign a molecule to take advantage of these changes."...

Breakthrough developments in rheumatoid arthritis reported

...ethods. The group has discovered another signaling molecule that seems to increase a person’s risk for rheumatoid arthritis by 30 percent. (The paper reporting the gene is in press.) In collaborations with other scientists worldwide, Dr. Gregersen has also been able to show that certain markers are stron...

Migration alert -- How tumor cells home in on the lymphatic system

...flow biases the concentration distribution of this molecule towards the lymphatic, and the tumor cell follows .... Near the vessel, concentrations of the signaling molecule are reinforced by the lymphatic’s own secretions, fine tuning the tumor cells’ migration and guarant...

Progress toward an antitumor vaccine

... University of Mainz has now found a way to bind a molecule that is typical for tumors to a carrier protein wi...charides. The modified MUC1 would be a good target molecule (antigen) for antibodies in immunological antitumor therapy. The difficulty with this approach is...

Bacteria ferry nanoparticles into cells for early diagnosis, treatment

...been finding ways to transport the therapeutic DNA molecule through the nuclear membrane and into the nucleus," he said. "Only when it is in the nucleus can the DNA produce proteins that perform specific functions and correct genetic disease conditions." When the cargo-carrying bacteria attach to the recip...

Plastic that grows on trees

...ser facility located at PNNL. During the swap, the molecule opens, Zhang said. “The key is to take advantage of the open form to perform a hydride transfer through which glucose is converted to fructose.” Zhang’s next step is to tinker with ionic solvents and metal halides combinations to see if he can ...

Mutating the entire genome

...eic acid, or DNA, a twisting, double ladder-shaped molecule made from numerous “base pairs” of four building blocks: nucleic acids designated A, C, G and T. DNA in each human cell has about 3 billion base pairs, arranged into 23 pairs of chromosomes. Those chromosomes include roughly 20,000 genes, which c...

St. Jude study shows genes play an unexpected role in their own activation

...a protein called CREB, is a transcription factor—a molecule that binds to a section of DNA near a gene and tri...ch it codes. CREB activates genes in response to a molecule called cAMP, which acts as a messenger for a variety of stimuli including hormones and nerve-signali...

'Smart' mice teach scientists about learning process, brain disorders

...ally, Cdk5 works with another enzyme to break up a molecule called NR2B, which is found in nerve-cell membranes and stimulates the cell to fire when a nerve-cell-signaling molecule, or neurotransmitter, binds to it. NR2B previously has been implicated in the early stages of learning. The new research showe...

Catching cancer's spread by watching hemoglobin

...rbing properties of hemoglobin, the red-blood-cell molecule that carries oxygen throughout the bloodstream. Th... red blood cells, imaging the locations where this molecule occurs can map out the distribution of red blood cells and reveal the vessels themselves. If the ima...

A cherry on top: Tart cherries may alter heart/diabetes factors

...wer oxidative stress and increased production of a molecule that helps the body handle fat and sugar, compared with rats that didn't receive cherries as part of an otherwise similar diet. All of the rats had a predisposition toward high cholesterol and pre-diabetes, but not obesity. All the measures on wh...

Technique monitors thousands of molecules simultaneously

...lecules through a lock and key mechanism where the molecule is the key and the receptor the lock. The nature and shape of molecules that serve as keys tells about the binding requirements of the receptor. Traditionally, probing a receptor this way has been done by making a library of molecules, treating it wi...

Protein enables discovery of quantum effect in photosynthesis

...stem, sandwiched in between a larger antenna and a molecule called the Reaction Center, where all the chemistry in energy transfer takes place, said Blankenship. "Most of the absorption of light is carried out by a complex called the chlorosome that then transfers the energy to the trimeric protein that i...

pHLIP, a novel technology to locate and treat tumors

...oth imaging and treating tumors.? The pHLIP molecule has three states: soluble in water, bound to the surface of a membrane, and inserted across the membrane as an alpha-helix. Under normal tissue conditions of neutral pH, the water-soluble form is favored. At acidic pH, the transmembrane alpha-helix p...

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