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Tag: "mitochondria" at biology news

Mitochondrial DNA mutations play significant role in prostate cancer

...arate from nuclear DNA, is foundin the hundreds of mitochondria located in the cytoplasm outside ofeach cell's nucleus. The mitochondria often are called the "powerhouse"of the cell because they produce about 90 percent of the body's ene...

Critical role in programmed cell death identified

...artmouth Medical School, reveals the importance of mitochondria in cell death in the roundworm C. elegans, enhanci...ria. Using genetics, we could rigorously show that mitochondria are part of it. It unifies two different hypothesis and makes worms a great model to analyze how cel...

Nano-Probes Allow an Inside Look at Cell Nuclei

...r cellular organelles besides the nucleus, such as mitochondria and Golgi bodies. And because quantum dots emit different colors of light based on their size, they can be used to observe the transfer of material between cells. "We can have two different quantum dots in two different cells, and watch as the cells...

Novel ultrafast laser detection of cancer cells also may improve understanding of stem cells

...g spectrometer, instantly identify cancer-modified mitochondria in cells gone wrong. Mitochondria are known as the... in normal and cancer cells by using intracellular mitochondria as biomarkers for disease. This technique holds promise for detecting cancer at a very early stage a...

A human parasite with a streamlined mitochondrion

...ein, called a mitochondrial carrier, that in human mitochondria exists in many different specialized versions. In humans, these diverse carriers are needed to import and export the varied chemicals required, or produced, by our complex mitochondria. The presence of a single carrier in the Entamoeba mitosome means...

15 generations of untrained jocks, couch potatoes show big physiological adaptations

...d for better transport of the oxygen to the muscle mitochondria of the athletic rats." according to Richard A. Howlett, lead author of one of three papers on the experiment. Howlett and the other two lead authors, Scott D. Kirkton and Patrick G. Giuliano are all from UCSD's Department of Medicine, Division of Phy...

Researchers extend mouse lifespan by protecting against free radicals

...n lifespan. These results fit with the theory that mitochondria can be an important source of free radicals create...ed heart problems seen in wild-type mice. The MCAT mitochondria also had fewer mutations, and the MCAT nuclear DNA had fewer oxidized components. "This study is ve...

New protein vital for immune response is found in surprise location

...nd the study's senior author. "This discovery puts mitochondria on the map in terms of immunity, and it opens up a...Dr. Chen said. First, proteins housed within the mitochondria have been shown by researchers, such as UT Southwestern biochemist Dr. Xiaodong Wang and others, to ...

Elderly mice yield clues to the process of growing old

...ich suggests that accumulated genetic mutations in mitochondria slow metabolism. In turn, that change prompts cells to produce fewer of the reactive free radical molecules. The symptoms of aging become pronounced with the loss of some critical cells, notably adult stem cells from some tissues and that are essent...

Global warming increases oyster sensitivity to pollution

...hanism for this observation is increased damage of mitochondria in cadmium-exposed oysters with increasing tempera... so that cadmium levels which were not damaging to mitochondria at lower temperature become strongly toxic with increasing temperature." Cadmium circulates continu...

Molecular trigger for Huntington's disease found

...cular mechanism linking disturbances of nuclei and mitochondria in HD." Byoung-Il Bae, Shuichi Igarashi, Masahiro Fujimuro, Nishant Agrawal, Yoichi Taya, S. Diane Hayward, Timothy H Moran, Christopher A Ross, Solomon H Snyder, Akira Sawa: "p53 Mediates Cellular Dysfunction and Behavioral Abnormalities in Hunting...

Scientists sequence DNA of woolly mammoth

...the nuclear genome. Analyzing organellar DNA from mitochondria has been the only method of studying ancient DNA in the past, as it is more tractable due to its 1000-fold higher copy number per cell. However, the mitochondrial genome codes for only a tiny fraction of an organism's genetic information -- 0.0006 ...

Getting old? Slowing down? Blame inefficient mitochondria

...nd fuel it burns, you can assess the efficiency of mitochondria by monitoring the amount of ATP produced for every... half as much energy as young muscle, but that the mitochondria used just as much oxygen at both ages. This represents a 50% loss in efficiency. "The best explanat...

Lactic acid not athlete's poison, but an energy source - if you know how to use it

...lar level, Brooks said, training means growing the mitochondria in muscle cells. The mitochondria - often called the powerhouse of the cell - is where lactate is burned for energy. "The world's bes...

Alzheimer's study first to explain death of brain cells

...ination of functional heme deficiency, which harms mitochondria needed to produce energy, together with the increase in oxidative damage caused by the peroxidase, is what eventually kills the cell. "Until now, we didn't understand all the factors that trigger Alzheimer's disease. The discovery of the formation...

Rice University researchers create 'nanorice'

...ination of functional heme deficiency, which harms mitochondria needed to produce energy, together with the increase in oxidative damage caused by the peroxidase, is what eventually kills the cell. "Until now, we didn't understand all the factors that trigger Alzheimer's disease. The discovery of the formation...

Chocolate milk could be key to longer, healthier life

...alled mitochondria. As we grow older the amount of mitochondria we have decreases and with it our respiratory capa...th benefits, but our research specifically targets mitochondria since they are a cause of age-related decreases in muscle function. "If successful, we could prove...

Biomarkers may hone anti-aging therapies

...llular aging -- why and how cells age -- center on mitochondria and decreased energetic capacity resulting from mitochondrial DNA mutations, Sligh explained. In addition, mutations in mitochondrial DNA have been associated with tumor development. "We initiated this project with the idea that perhaps there was a ...

First direct mechanical communication of mitochondria, cardiomyocyte nucleus shown

...-French team demonstrated "for the first time that mitochondria are able to induce nuclear deformation, suggesting that mitochondria may mechanically regulate nuclear function." The team, which has been collaborating for over 10 yea...

Cancer virus protein needed for successful infection

... also important to study because it travels to the mitochondria of infected cells." Mitochondria produce the cell's energy supply and store enzymes that carry out the process of natural cell death, or apoptosis. "These findings should help us begin to learn whether this viral protein influences cell survival, p...

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